Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Materials, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2015), Pages 2043-2848

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-50
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Dissolution and Precipitation Behaviour during Continuous Heating of Al–Mg–Si Alloys in a Wide Range of Heating Rates
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2830-2848; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052830
Received: 17 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1021 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, the dissolution and precipitation behaviour of four different aluminium alloys (EN AW-6005A, EN AW-6082, EN AW-6016, and EN AW-6181) in four different initial heat treatment conditions (T4, T6, overaged, and soft annealed) was investigated during heating in a wide
[...] Read more.
In the present study, the dissolution and precipitation behaviour of four different aluminium alloys (EN AW-6005A, EN AW-6082, EN AW-6016, and EN AW-6181) in four different initial heat treatment conditions (T4, T6, overaged, and soft annealed) was investigated during heating in a wide dynamic range. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to record heating curves between 20 and 600 °C. Heating rates were studied from 0.01 K/s to 5 K/s. We paid particular attention to control baseline stability, generating flat baselines and allowing accurate quantitative evaluation of the resulting DSC curves. As the heating rate increases, the individual dissolution and precipitation reactions shift to higher temperatures. The reactions during heating are significantly superimposed and partially run simultaneously. In addition, precipitation and dissolution reactions are increasingly suppressed as the heating rate increases, whereby exothermic precipitation reactions are suppressed earlier than endothermic dissolution reactions. Integrating the heating curves allowed the enthalpy levels of the different initial microstructural conditions to be quantified. Referring to time–temperature–austenitisation diagrams for steels, continuous heating dissolution diagrams for aluminium alloys were constructed to summarise the results in graphical form. These diagrams may support process optimisation in heat treatment shops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Nanomaterials-Based Fluorimetric Methods for MicroRNAs Detection
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2809-2829; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052809
Received: 17 April 2015 / Revised: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that play important functions in the regulation of many biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Since their expression has been in close association with the development of many diseases, recently, miRNAs
[...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that play important functions in the regulation of many biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Since their expression has been in close association with the development of many diseases, recently, miRNAs have been regarded as clinically important biomarkers and drug discovery targets. However, because of the short length, high sequence similarity and low abundance of miRNAs in vivo, it is difficult to realize the sensitive and selective detection of miRNAs with conventional methods. In line with the rapid development of nanotechnology, nanomaterials have attracted great attention and have been intensively studied in biological analysis due to their unique chemical, physical and size properties. In particular, fluorimetric methodologies in combination with nanotechnology are especially rapid, sensitive and efficient. The aim of this review is to provide insight into nanomaterials-based fluorimetric methods for the detection of miRNAs, including metal nanomaterials, quantum dots (QDs), graphene oxide (GO) and silicon nanoparticles. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Prosthetic Meshes for Repair of Hernia and Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Comparison of Biomechanical Properties
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2794-2808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052794
Received: 20 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to compare the mechanical behavior of synthetic meshes used for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and hernia repair. The analysis is based on a comprehensive experimental protocol, which included uniaxial and biaxial tension, cyclic loading and testing of meshes in dry
[...] Read more.
This study aims to compare the mechanical behavior of synthetic meshes used for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and hernia repair. The analysis is based on a comprehensive experimental protocol, which included uniaxial and biaxial tension, cyclic loading and testing of meshes in dry conditions and embedded into an elastomer matrix. Implants are grouped as POP or hernia meshes, as indicated by the manufacturer, and their stiffness in different loading configurations, area density and porosity are compared. Hernia meshes might be expected to be stiffer, since they are implanted into a stiffer tissue (abdominal wall) than POP meshes (vaginal wall). Contrary to this, hernia meshes have a generally lower secant stiffness than POP meshes. For example, DynaMesh PRS, a POP mesh, is up to two orders of magnitude stiffer in all tested configurations than DynaMesh ENDOLAP, a hernia mesh. Additionally, lighter, large pore implants might be expected to be more compliant, which was shown to be generally not true. In particular, Restorelle, the lightest mesh with the largest pores, is less compliant in the tested configurations than Surgipro, the heaviest, small-pore implant. Our study raises the question of defining a meaningful design target for meshes in terms of mechanical biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Biomaterials) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Raman Microscopic Analysis of Internal Stress in Boron-Doped Diamond
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2782-2793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052782
Received: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4681 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Analysis of the induced stress on undoped and boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films by confocal Raman microscopy is performed in this study to investigate its correlation with sample chemical composition and the substrate used during fabrication. Knowledge of this nature is very important
[...] Read more.
Analysis of the induced stress on undoped and boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films by confocal Raman microscopy is performed in this study to investigate its correlation with sample chemical composition and the substrate used during fabrication. Knowledge of this nature is very important to the issue of long-term stability of BDD coated neurosurgical electrodes that will be used in fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, as potential occurrence of film delaminations and dislocations during their surgical implantation can have unwanted consequences for the reliability of BDD-based biosensing electrodes. To achieve a more uniform deposition of the films on cylindrically-shaped tungsten rods, substrate rotation was employed in a custom-built chemical vapor deposition reactor. In addition to visibly preferential boron incorporation into the diamond lattice and columnar growth, the results also reveal a direct correlation between regions of pure diamond and enhanced stress. Definite stress release throughout entire film thicknesses was found in the current Raman mapping images for higher amounts of boron addition. There is also a possible contribution to the high values of compressive stress from sp2 type carbon impurities, besides that of the expected lattice mismatch between film and substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Investigation of the High Mobility IGZO Thin Films by Using Co-Sputtering Method
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2769-2781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052769
Received: 27 March 2015 / Revised: 9 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High transmittance ratio in visible range, low resistivity, and high mobility of IGZO thin films were prepared at room temperature for 30 min by co-sputtering of Zn2Ga2O5 (Ga2O3 + 2 ZnO, GZO) ceramic and In
[...] Read more.
High transmittance ratio in visible range, low resistivity, and high mobility of IGZO thin films were prepared at room temperature for 30 min by co-sputtering of Zn2Ga2O5 (Ga2O3 + 2 ZnO, GZO) ceramic and In2O3 ceramic at the same time. The deposition power of pure In2O3 ceramic target was fixed at 100 W and the deposition power of GZO ceramic target was changed from 80 W to 140 W. We chose to investigate the deposition power of GZO ceramic target on the properties of IGZO thin films. From the SEM observations, all of the deposited IGZO thin films showed a very smooth and featureless surface. From the measurements of XRD patterns, only the amorphous structure was observed. We aimed to show that the deposition power of GZO ceramic target had large effect on the Eg values, Hall mobility, carrier concentration, and resistivity of IGZO thin films. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis in the thicknesses’ profile of IGZO thin films found that In and Ga elements were uniform distribution and Zn element were non-uniform distribution. The SIMS analysis results also showed the concentrations of Ga and Zn elements increased and the concentrations of In element was almost unchanged with increasing deposition power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2015)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Wear Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2749-2768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052749
Received: 17 March 2015 / Revised: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metals are extensively used in a variety of applications in the medical field for internal support and biological tissue replacements, such as joint replacements, dental roots, orthopedic fixation, and stents. The metals and alloys that are primarily used in biomedical applications are stainless
[...] Read more.
Metals are extensively used in a variety of applications in the medical field for internal support and biological tissue replacements, such as joint replacements, dental roots, orthopedic fixation, and stents. The metals and alloys that are primarily used in biomedical applications are stainless steels, Co alloys, and Ti alloys. The service period of a metallic biomaterial is determined by its abrasion and wear resistance. A reduction in the wear resistance of the implant results in the release of incompatible metal ions into the body that loosen the implant. In addition, several reactions may occur because of the deposition of wear debris in tissue. Therefore, developing biomaterials with high wear resistance is critical to ensuring a long life for the biomaterial. The aim of this work is to review the current state of knowledge of the wear of metallic biomaterials and how wear is affected by the material properties and conditions in terms of the type of alloys developed and fabrication processes. We also present a brief evaluation of various experimental test techniques and wear characterization techniques that are used to determine the tribological performance of metallic biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2735-2748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052735
Received: 11 February 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1596 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report
[...] Read more.
Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol %) were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of Experimental Parameters on Morphological, Mechanical and Hydrophobic Properties of Electrospun Polystyrene Fibers
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2718-2734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052718
Received: 21 April 2015 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (1897 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polystyrene (PS) dissolved in a mixture of N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and/or tetrahydrofuran (THF) was electrospun to prepare fibers with sub-micron diameters. The effects of electrospinning parameters, including solvent combinations, polymer concentrations, applied voltage on fiber morphology, as well as tensile and
[...] Read more.
Polystyrene (PS) dissolved in a mixture of N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and/or tetrahydrofuran (THF) was electrospun to prepare fibers with sub-micron diameters. The effects of electrospinning parameters, including solvent combinations, polymer concentrations, applied voltage on fiber morphology, as well as tensile and hydrophobic properties of the fiber mats were investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of electrospun fibers (23% w/v PS solution with applied voltage of 15 kV) showed that a new type of fiber with double-strand morphology was formed when the mass ratio of DMF and THF was 50/50 and 25/75. The tensile strength of the PS fiber film was 1.5 MPa, indicating strong reinforcement from double-strand fibers. Bead-free fibers were obtained by electrospinning 40% (w/v) PS/DMF solution at an applied voltage of 15 kV. Notably, when the ratio of DMF and THF was 100/0, the maximum contact angle (CA) value of the electrospun PS films produced at 15 kV was 148°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Reinforcement Strategies for Load-Bearing Calcium Phosphate Biocements
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2700-2717; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052700
Received: 19 March 2015 / Revised: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (804 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Calcium phosphate biocements based on calcium phosphate chemistry are well-established biomaterials for the repair of non-load bearing bone defects due to the brittle nature and low flexural strength of such cements. This article features reinforcement strategies of biocements based on various intrinsic or
[...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate biocements based on calcium phosphate chemistry are well-established biomaterials for the repair of non-load bearing bone defects due to the brittle nature and low flexural strength of such cements. This article features reinforcement strategies of biocements based on various intrinsic or extrinsic material modifications to improve their strength and toughness. Altering particle size distribution in conjunction with using liquefiers reduces the amount of cement liquid necessary for cement paste preparation. This in turn decreases cement porosity and increases the mechanical performance, but does not change the brittle nature of the cements. The use of fibers may lead to a reinforcement of the matrix with a toughness increase of up to two orders of magnitude, but restricts at the same time cement injection for minimal invasive application techniques. A novel promising approach is the concept of dual-setting cements, in which a second hydrogel phase is simultaneously formed during setting, leading to more ductile cement–hydrogel composites with largely unaffected application properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Biomaterials) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of Refractive Index of Substrate on Fabrication and Optical Properties of Hybrid Au-Ag Triangular Nanoparticle Arrays
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2688-2699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052688
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 3 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the nanosphere lithography (NSL) method was used to fabricate hybrid Au-Ag triangular periodic nanoparticle arrays. The Au-Ag triangular periodic arrays were grown on different substrates, and the effect of the refractive index of substrates on fabrication and optical properties was
[...] Read more.
In this study, the nanosphere lithography (NSL) method was used to fabricate hybrid Au-Ag triangular periodic nanoparticle arrays. The Au-Ag triangular periodic arrays were grown on different substrates, and the effect of the refractive index of substrates on fabrication and optical properties was systematically investigated. At first, the optical spectrum was simulated by the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) numerical method as a function of refractive indexes of substrates and mediums. Simulation results showed that as the substrates had the refractive indexes of 1.43 (quartz) and 1.68 (SF5 glass), the nanoparticle arrays would have better refractive index sensitivity (RIS) and figure of merit (FOM). Simulation results also showed that the peak wavelength of the extinction spectra had a red shift when the medium’s refractive index n increased. The experimental results also demonstrated that when refractive indexes of substrates were 1.43 and 1.68, the nanoparticle arrays and substrate had better adhesive ability. Meanwhile, we found the nanoparticles formed a large-scale monolayer array with the hexagonally close-packed structure. Finally, the hybrid Au-Ag triangular nanoparticle arrays were fabricated on quartz and SF5 glass substrates and their experiment extinction spectra were compared with the simulated results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2015)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Field Performance of Recycled Plastic Foundation for Pipeline
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2673-2687; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052673
Received: 27 January 2015 / Revised: 12 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
PDF Full-text (4555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The incidence of failure of embedded pipelines has increased in Korea due to the increasing applied load and the improper compaction of bedding and backfill materials. To overcome these problems, a prefabricated lightweight plastic foundation using recycled plastic was developed for sewer pipelines.
[...] Read more.
The incidence of failure of embedded pipelines has increased in Korea due to the increasing applied load and the improper compaction of bedding and backfill materials. To overcome these problems, a prefabricated lightweight plastic foundation using recycled plastic was developed for sewer pipelines. A small scale laboratory chamber test and two field tests were conducted to verify its construction workability and performance. From the small scale laboratory chamber test, the applied loads at 2.5% and 5.0% of deformation were 3.45 kgf/cm2 and 5.85 kgf/cm2 for Case S1, and 4.42 kgf/cm2 and 6.43 kgf/cm2 for Case S2, respectively. From the first field test, the vertical deformation of the recycled plastic foundation (Case A2) was very small. According to the analysis based on the PE pipe deformation at the connection (CN) and at the center (CT), the pipe deformation at each part for Case A1 was larger than that for Case A2, which adopted the recycled lightweight plastic foundation. From the second field test, the measured maximum settlements of Case B1 and Case B2 were 1.05 cm and 0.54 cm, respectively. The use of a plastic foundation can reduce the settlement of an embedded pipeline and be an alternative construction method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effects of Different Fine Recycled Concrete Aggregates on the Properties of Mortar
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2658-2672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052658
Received: 10 March 2015 / Revised: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (4181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The practical use of recycled concrete aggregate produced by crushing concrete waste reduces the consumption of natural aggregate and the amount of concrete waste that ends up in landfills. This study investigated two methods used in the production of fine recycled concrete aggregate:
[...] Read more.
The practical use of recycled concrete aggregate produced by crushing concrete waste reduces the consumption of natural aggregate and the amount of concrete waste that ends up in landfills. This study investigated two methods used in the production of fine recycled concrete aggregate: (1) a method that produces fine as well as coarse aggregate, and (2) a method that produces only fine aggregate. Mortar specimens were tested using a variety of mix proportions to determine how the characteristics of fine recycled concrete aggregate affect the physical and mechanical properties of the resulting mortars. Our results demonstrate the superiority of mortar produced using aggregate produced using the second of the two methods. Nonetheless, far more energy is required to render concrete into fine aggregate than is required to produce coarse as well as fine aggregate simultaneously. Thus, the performance benefits of using only fine recycled concrete aggregate must be balanced against the increased impact on the environment. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Quantitative Evaluation of Contamination on Dental Zirconia Ceramic by Silicone Disclosing Agents after Different Cleaning Procedures
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2650-2657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052650
Received: 23 January 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning procedures for air-abraded zirconia after contamination with two silicone disclosing agents. Air-abraded zirconia ceramic specimens (IPS e.max ZirCAD) were contaminated with either GC Fit Checker white or GC Fit Checker II.
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning procedures for air-abraded zirconia after contamination with two silicone disclosing agents. Air-abraded zirconia ceramic specimens (IPS e.max ZirCAD) were contaminated with either GC Fit Checker white or GC Fit Checker II. Untreated zirconia specimens were used as control. Afterwards the surfaces were cleaned either with waterspray or ultrasonically in 99% isopropanol or using a newly developed cleaning paste (Ivoclean). After cleaning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed and the relative peak intensities of Zr, C and Si were used for a qualitative comparison of the residuals. There was no significant difference between the two different silicone disclosing agents. An additional cleaning step with isopropanol led to a significantly lower amount of residuals on the surface, but an additional cleaning process with Ivoclean did not reduce the amount of carbon residuals in comparison to the isopropanol cleaning. Just the silicone amount on the surface was reduced. None of the investigated cleaning processes removed all residuals from the contaminated surface. Standard cleaning processes do not remove all residuals of the silicone disclosing agent from the surface. This may lead to a failure of the resin-ceramic bonding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Electrochemical Investigation of the Corrosion of Different Microstructural Phases of X65 Pipeline Steel under Saturated Carbon Dioxide Conditions
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2635-2649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052635
Received: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 14 May 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of metallurgy on the corrosion behaviour of separate weld zone (WZ) and parent plate (PP) regions of X65 pipeline steel in a solution of deionised water saturated with CO2, at two
[...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of metallurgy on the corrosion behaviour of separate weld zone (WZ) and parent plate (PP) regions of X65 pipeline steel in a solution of deionised water saturated with CO2, at two different temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) and at initial pH~4.0. In addition, a non-electrochemical immersion experiment was also performed at 80 °C in CO2, on a sample portion of X65 pipeline containing part of a weld section, together with adjacent heat affected zones (HAZ) and parent material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of the separate weld and parent plate samples. This study seeks to understand the significance of the different microstructures within the different zones of the welded X65 pipe in CO2 environments on corrosion performance; with particular attention given to the formation of surface scales; and their composition/significance. The results obtained from grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements suggest that, post immersion, the parent plate substrate is scale free, with only features arising from ferrite (α-Fe) and cementite (Fe3C) apparent. In contrast, at 80 °C, GIXRD from the weld zone substrate, and weld zone/heat affected zone of the non-electrochemical sample indicates the presence of siderite (FeCO3) and chukanovite (Fe2CO3(OH)2) phases. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) on this surface confirmed the presence of characteristic discrete cube-shaped crystallites of siderite together with plate-like clusters of chukanovite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steels)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties and Cytocompatibility Improvement of Vertebroplasty PMMA Bone Cements by Incorporating Mineralized Collagen
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2616-2634; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052616
Received: 15 March 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a commonly used bone adhesive and filling material in percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty surgeries. However, PMMA bone cements have been reported to cause some severe complications, such as secondary fracture of adjacent vertebral bodies, and loosening
[...] Read more.
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a commonly used bone adhesive and filling material in percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty surgeries. However, PMMA bone cements have been reported to cause some severe complications, such as secondary fracture of adjacent vertebral bodies, and loosening or even dislodgement of the set PMMA bone cement, due to the over-high elastic modulus and poor osteointegration ability of the PMMA. In this study, mineralized collagen (MC) with biomimetic microstructure and good osteogenic activity was added to commercially available PMMA bone cement products, in order to improve both the mechanical properties and the cytocompatibility. As the compressive strength of the modified bone cements remained well, the compressive elastic modulus could be significantly down-regulated by the MC, so as to reduce the pressure on the adjacent vertebral bodies. Meanwhile, the adhesion and proliferation of pre-osteoblasts on the modified bone cements were improved compared with cells on those unmodified, such result is beneficial for a good osteointegration formation between the bone cement and the host bone tissue in clinical applications. Moreover, the modification of the PMMA bone cements by adding MC did not significantly influence the injectability and processing times of the cement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Biomaterials) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Polysaccharides for the Delivery of Antitumor Drugs
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2569-2615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052569
Received: 24 January 2015 / Revised: 11 April 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among the several delivery materials available so far, polysaccharides represent very attractive molecules as they can undergo a wide range of chemical modifications, are biocompatible, biodegradable, and have low immunogenic properties. Thus, polysaccharides can contribute to significantly overcome the limitation in the use
[...] Read more.
Among the several delivery materials available so far, polysaccharides represent very attractive molecules as they can undergo a wide range of chemical modifications, are biocompatible, biodegradable, and have low immunogenic properties. Thus, polysaccharides can contribute to significantly overcome the limitation in the use of many types of drugs, including anti-cancer drugs. The use of conventional anti-cancer drugs is hampered by their high toxicity, mostly depending on the indiscriminate targeting of both cancer and normal cells. Additionally, for nucleic acid based drugs (NABDs), an emerging class of drugs with potential anti-cancer value, the practical use is problematic. This mostly depends on their fast degradation in biological fluids and the difficulties to cross cell membranes. Thus, for both classes of drugs, the development of optimal delivery materials is crucial. Here we discuss the possibility of using different kinds of polysaccharides, such as chitosan, hyaluronic acid, dextran, and pullulan, as smart drug delivery materials. We first describe the main features of polysaccharides, then a general overview about the aspects ruling drug release mechanisms and the pharmacokinetic are reported. Finally, notable examples of polysaccharide-based delivery of conventional anti-cancer drugs and NABDs are reported. Whereas additional research is required, the promising results obtained so far, fully justify further efforts, both in terms of economic support and investigations in the field of polysaccharides as drug delivery materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Drug Delivery)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Applications of Ni3Al Based Intermetallic Alloys—Current Stage and Potential Perceptivities
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2537-2568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052537
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 20 April 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (8003 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents an overview of current and prospective applications of Ni3Al based intermetallic alloys—modern engineering materials with special properties that are potentially useful for both structural and functional purposes. The bulk components manufactured from these materials are intended mainly for
[...] Read more.
The paper presents an overview of current and prospective applications of Ni3Al based intermetallic alloys—modern engineering materials with special properties that are potentially useful for both structural and functional purposes. The bulk components manufactured from these materials are intended mainly for forging dies, furnace assembly, turbocharger components, valves, and piston head of internal combustion engines. The Ni3Al based alloys produced by a directional solidification are also considered as a material for the fabrication of jet engine turbine blades. Moreover, development of composite materials with Ni3Al based alloys as a matrix hardened by, e.g., TiC, ZrO2, WC, SiC and graphene, is also reported. Due to special physical and chemical properties; it is expected that these materials in the form of thin foils and strips should make a significant contribution to the production of high tech devices, e.g., Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) or Microtechnology-based Energy and Chemical Systems (MECS); as well as heat exchangers; microreactors; micro-actuators; components of combustion chambers and gasket of rocket and jet engines as well components of high specific strength systems. Additionally, their catalytic properties may find an application in catalytic converters, air purification systems from chemical and biological toxic agents or in a hydrogen “production” by a decomposition of hydrocarbons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intermetallic Alloys: Fabrication, Properties and Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Novel Porcine Graft for Regeneration of Bone Defects
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2523-2536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052523
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 23 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 12 May 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone regeneration procedures require alternative graft biomaterials to those for autogenous bone. Therefore, we developed a novel porcine graft using particle sizes of 250–500 μm and 500–1000 μm in rabbit calvarial bone defects and compared the graft properties with those of commercial hydroxyapatite
[...] Read more.
Bone regeneration procedures require alternative graft biomaterials to those for autogenous bone. Therefore, we developed a novel porcine graft using particle sizes of 250–500 μm and 500–1000 μm in rabbit calvarial bone defects and compared the graft properties with those of commercial hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) over eight weeks. Surgery was performed in 20 adult male New Zealand white rabbits. During a standardized surgical procedure, four calvarial critical-size defects of 5 mm diameter and 3 mm depth were prepared. The defects were filled with HA/β-TCP, 250–500 μm or 500–1000 μm porcine graft, and control defects were not filled. The animals were grouped for sacrifice at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-surgery. Subsequently, sample blocks were prepared for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning and histological sectioning. Similar bone formations were observed in all three treatment groups, although the 250–500 μm porcine graft performed slightly better. Rabbit calvarial bone tissue positively responded to porcine grafts and commercial HA/β-TCP, structural analyses showed similar crystallinity and porosity of the porcine and HA/β-TCP grafts, which facilitated bone formation through osteoconduction. These porcine grafts can be considered as graft substitutes, although further development is required for clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Thermoelectric Properties in the 2D Ti1 xNbxS3 Trichalcogenides
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2514-2522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052514
Received: 25 March 2015 / Revised: 10 April 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1077 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A solid solution of Ti1 − xNbxS3 composition (x = 0, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10) was synthesized by solid-liquid-vapor reaction followed by spark plasma sintering. The obtained compounds crystallize in the monoclinic ZrSe3 structure type. For the
[...] Read more.
A solid solution of Ti1 − xNbxS3 composition (x = 0, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10) was synthesized by solid-liquid-vapor reaction followed by spark plasma sintering. The obtained compounds crystallize in the monoclinic ZrSe3 structure type. For the x = 0.07 sample, a mixture of both A and B variants of the MX3 structure is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. This result contrasts with those of pristine TiS3, prepared within the same conditions, which crystallizes as a large majority of A variant. Thermoelectric properties were investigated in the temperature range 323 to 523 K. A decrease in the electrical resistivity and absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient is observed when increasing x due to electron doping. The lattice component of the thermal conductivity is effectively reduced by the Nb for Ti substitution through a mass fluctuation effect and/or a disorder effect created by the mixture of both A and B variants. Due to the low carrier concentration and the semiconductor character of the doped compounds, the too low power factor values leads to ZT values that remain smaller by a factor of 50 than those of the TiS2 layered compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Dimensional Anisotropic Thermoelectrics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle “Low Cost” Pore Expanded SBA-15 Functionalized with Amine Groups Applied to CO2 Adsorption
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2495-2513; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052495
Received: 1 March 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The CO2 adsorption capacity of different functionalized mesoporous silicas of the SBA-15 type was investigated and the influence of textural properties and the effect of the silicon source on the CO2 uptake studied. Several adsorbents based on SBA-15 were synthesized using
[...] Read more.
The CO2 adsorption capacity of different functionalized mesoporous silicas of the SBA-15 type was investigated and the influence of textural properties and the effect of the silicon source on the CO2 uptake studied. Several adsorbents based on SBA-15 were synthesized using sodium silicate as silicon source, replacing the commonly used tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Thus, we synthesized three couples of supports, two at room temperature (RT, RT-F), two hydrothermal (HT, HT-F) and two hydrothermal with addition of swelling agent (1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene) (TiPB, TiPB-F). Within each couple, one of the materials was synthesized with ammonium fluoride (NH4F). The supports were functionalized via grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and via impregnation with polyethylenimine ethylenediamine branched (PEI). The adsorption behavior of the pure materials was described well by the Langmuir model, whereas for the amine-silicas, a Dualsite Langmuir model was applied, which allowed us to qualify and quantify two different adsorption sites. Among the materials synthesized, only the SBA-15 synthesized at room temperatures (RT) improved its properties as an adsorbent with the addition of fluoride when the silicas were functionalized with APTES. The most promising result was the TiPB-F/50PEI silica which at 75 °C and 1 bar CO2 captured 2.21 mmol/g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mesoporous Material 2015)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Bioactive Wollastonite-Diopside Foams from Preceramic Polymers and Reactive Oxide Fillers
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2480-2494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052480
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (5399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wollastonite (CaSiO3) and diopside (CaMgSi2O6) silicate ceramics have been widely investigated as highly bioactive materials, suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. In the present paper, highly porous glass-ceramic foams, with both wollastonite and diopside as crystal phases,
[...] Read more.
Wollastonite (CaSiO3) and diopside (CaMgSi2O6) silicate ceramics have been widely investigated as highly bioactive materials, suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. In the present paper, highly porous glass-ceramic foams, with both wollastonite and diopside as crystal phases, were developed from the thermal treatment of silicone polymers filled with CaO and MgO precursors, in the form of micro-sized particles. The foaming was due to water release, at low temperature, in the polymeric matrix before ceramic conversion, mainly operated by hydrated sodium phosphate, used as a secondary filler. This additive proved to be “multifunctional”, since it additionally favored the phase development, by the formation of a liquid phase upon firing, in turn promoting the ionic interdiffusion. The liquid phase was promoted also by the incorporation of powders of a glass crystallizing itself in wollastonite and diopside, with significant improvements in both structural integrity and crushing strength. The biological characterization of polymer-derived wollastonite-diopside foams, to assess the bioactivity of the samples, was performed by means of a cell culture test. The MTT assay and LDH activity tests gave positive results in terms of cell viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Deformation of Coronary Stents from CoCr-Alloys with Different Designs
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2467-2479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052467
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coronary heart disease is still one of the most common sources for death in western industrial countries. Since 1986, a metal vessel scaffold (stent) has been inserted to prevent the vessel wall from collapsing. Most of these coronary stents are made from CrNiMo­steel
[...] Read more.
Coronary heart disease is still one of the most common sources for death in western industrial countries. Since 1986, a metal vessel scaffold (stent) has been inserted to prevent the vessel wall from collapsing. Most of these coronary stents are made from CrNiMo­steel (316L). Due to its austenitic structure, the material shows a good combination of strength, ductility, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, this material has some disadvantages like its non-MRI compatibility and its poor fluoroscopic visibility. Other typically used materials are the Co­Base alloys L-605 and F-562 which are MRI compatible as well as radiopaque. Another interesting fact is their excellent radial strength and therefore the ability to produce extra thin struts with increased strength. However, because of a strut diameter much less than 100 μm, the cross section consists of about 5 to 10 crystal grains (oligo­crystalline). Thus, very few or even just one grain can be responsible for the success or failure of the whole stent. To investigate the relation between microstructure, mechanical factors and stent design, commercially available Cobalt-Chromium stents were investigated with focus on distinct inhomogeneous plastic deformation due to crimping and dilation. A characteristic, material related deformation behavior with predominantly primary slip was identified to be responsible for the special properties of CoCr stents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Biomaterials) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Experimental Evidence of Mechanical Isotropy in Porcine Lung Parenchyma
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2454-2466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052454
Received: 25 February 2015 / Revised: 16 April 2015 / Accepted: 20 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pulmonary injuries are a major source of morbidity and mortality associated with trauma. Trauma includes injuries associated with accidents and falls as well as blast injuries caused by explosives. The prevalence and mortality of these injuries has made research of pulmonary injury a
[...] Read more.
Pulmonary injuries are a major source of morbidity and mortality associated with trauma. Trauma includes injuries associated with accidents and falls as well as blast injuries caused by explosives. The prevalence and mortality of these injuries has made research of pulmonary injury a major priority. Lungs have a complex structure, with multiple types of tissues necessary to allow successful respiration. The soft, porous parenchyma is the component of the lung which contains the alveoli responsible for gas exchange. Parenchyma is also the portion which is most susceptible to traumatic injury. Finite element simulations are an important tool for studying traumatic injury to the human body. These simulations rely on material properties to accurately recreate real world mechanical behaviors. Previous studies have explored the mechanical properties of lung tissues, specifically parenchyma. These studies have assumed material isotropy but, to our knowledge, no study has thoroughly tested and quantified this assumption. This study presents a novel methodology for assessing isotropy in a tissue, and applies these methods to porcine lung parenchyma. Briefly, lung parenchyma samples were dissected so as to be aligned with one of the three anatomical planes, sagittal, frontal, and transverse, and then subjected to compressive mechanical testing. Stress-strain curves from these tests were statistically compared by a novel method for differences in stresses and strains at percentages of the curve. Histological samples aligned with the anatomical planes were also examined by qualitative and quantitative methods to determine any differences in the microstructural morphology. Our study showed significant evidence to support the hypothesis that lung parenchyma behaves isotropically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Biomaterials) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Disassembly Properties of Cementitious Finish Joints Using an Induction Heating Method
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2433-2453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052433
Received: 18 January 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
PDF Full-text (3062 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Efficient maintenance and upgrading of a building during its lifecycle are difficult because a cementitious finish uses materials and parts with low disassembly properties. Additionally, the reuse and recycling processes during building demolition also present numerous problems from the perspective of environmental technology.
[...] Read more.
Efficient maintenance and upgrading of a building during its lifecycle are difficult because a cementitious finish uses materials and parts with low disassembly properties. Additionally, the reuse and recycling processes during building demolition also present numerous problems from the perspective of environmental technology. In this study, an induction heating (IH) method was used to disassemble cementitious finish joints, which are widely used to join building members and materials. The IH rapidly and selectively heated and weakened these joints. The temperature elevation characteristics of the cementitious joint materials were measured as a function of several resistor types, including wire meshes and punching metals, which are usually used for cementitious finishing. The disassembly properties were evaluated through various tests using conductive resistors in cementitious joints such as mortar. When steel fiber, punching metal, and wire mesh were used as conductive resistors, the cementitious modifiers could be weakened within 30 s. Cementitious joints with conductive resistors also showed complete disassembly with little residual bond strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes in the Active Layer: Effect of Nanocomposite Synthesis Technique on Photovoltaic Properties
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2415-2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052415
Received: 2 March 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanocomposites of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) have been synthesized by two methods; specifically, direct solution mixing and in situ polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry,
[...] Read more.
Nanocomposites of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) have been synthesized by two methods; specifically, direct solution mixing and in situ polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence spectrophotometry (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and dispersive surface energy analysis. The nanocomposites were used in the active layer of a bulk heterojunction organic solar cell with the composition ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:N-CNTS:PCBM/LiF/Al. TEM and SEM analysis showed that the polymer successfully wrapped the N-CNTs. FTIR results indicated good π-π interaction within the nanocomposite synthesized by in situ polymerization as opposed to samples made by direct solution mixing. Dispersive surface energies of the N-CNTs and nanocomposites supported the fact that polymer covered the N-CNTs well. J-V analysis show that good devices were formed from the two nanocomposites, however, the in situ polymerization nanocomposite showed better photovoltaic characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Semi-Analytic Solution and Stability of a Space Truss Using a High-Order Taylor Series Method
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2400-2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052400
Received: 16 December 2014 / Revised: 6 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study is to analyse the dynamical instability (or the buckling) of a steel space truss using the accurate solutions obtained by the high-order Taylor series method. One is used to obtain numerical solutions for analysing instability, because it is difficult to find
[...] Read more.
This study is to analyse the dynamical instability (or the buckling) of a steel space truss using the accurate solutions obtained by the high-order Taylor series method. One is used to obtain numerical solutions for analysing instability, because it is difficult to find the analytic solution for a geometrical nonlinearity system. However, numerical solutions can yield incorrect analyses in the case of a space truss model with high nonlinearity. So, we use the semi-analytic solutions obtained by the high-order Taylor series to analyse the instability of the nonlinear truss system. Based on the semi-analytic solutions, we investigate the dynamical instability of the truss systems under step, sinusoidal and beating excitations. The analysis results show that the reliable attractors in the phase space can be observed even though various forces are excited. Furthermore, the dynamic buckling levels with periodic sinusoidal and beating excitations are lower, and the responses react sensitively according to the beating and the sinusoidal excitation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Combined Characterization of the Time Response of Impression Materials via Traditional and FTIR Measurements
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2387-2399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052387
Received: 26 February 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
PDF Full-text (1262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the temporal response of four dental impression materials, namely three siloxanes (Imprint 4, Flexitime, Aquasil) and one polyether (Impregum). The null hypothesis was that the nominal working times are confirmed by instrumental laboratory tests. We also aimed to identify alternative techniques
[...] Read more.
We investigated the temporal response of four dental impression materials, namely three siloxanes (Imprint 4, Flexitime, Aquasil) and one polyether (Impregum). The null hypothesis was that the nominal working times are confirmed by instrumental laboratory tests. We also aimed to identify alternative techniques with strong physical-chemical background for the assessment of temporal response. Traditional characterization was carried out by shark fin test device and durometer at both ambient and body temperature. Additionally, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was performed at room temperature. From shark fin height and Shore hardness versus time the working time and the setting time of the materials were evaluated, respectively. These were in reasonable agreement with the nominal values, except for Impregum, which showed longer working time. Spectroscopy confirmed the different character of the two types of materials, and provided for Imprint 4 and Aquasil an independent evaluation of both evolution times, consistent with the results of the other techniques. Shark fin test and durometer measurements showed deviations in setting time, low sensitivity to temperature for Flexitime, and longer working time at higher temperature for Impregum. Deviations of working time appear in operating conditions from what specified by the manufacturers. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy can provide insight in the correlation between material properties and their composition and structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assembly of CdS Quantum Dots onto Hierarchical TiO2 Structure for Quantum Dots Sensitized Solar Cell Applications
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2376-2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052376
Received: 27 January 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 5 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells based on Hierarchical TiO2 structure (HTS) consisting of spherical nano-urchins on transparent conductive fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate is fabricated. The hierarchical TiO2 structure consisting of spherical nano-urchins on transparent conductive fluorine doped tin
[...] Read more.
Quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells based on Hierarchical TiO2 structure (HTS) consisting of spherical nano-urchins on transparent conductive fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate is fabricated. The hierarchical TiO2 structure consisting of spherical nano-urchins on transparent conductive fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate synthesized by hydrothermal route. The CdS quantum dots were grown by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction deposition method. The quantum dot sensitized solar cell based on the hierarchical TiO2 structure shows a current density JSC = 1.44 mA, VOC = 0.46 V, FF = 0.42 and η = 0.27%. The QD provide a high surface area and nano-urchins offer a highway for fast charge collection and multiple scattering centers within the photoelectrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Surface Characterization and Photoluminescence Properties of Ce3+,Eu Co-Doped SrF2 Nanophosphor
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2361-2375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052361
Received: 28 January 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
SrF2:Eu,Ce3+ nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method during down-shifting investigations for solar cell applications. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning Auger nanoprobe, time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence
[...] Read more.
SrF2:Eu,Ce3+ nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method during down-shifting investigations for solar cell applications. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning Auger nanoprobe, time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD showed that the crystallite size calculated with Scherrer’s equation was in the nanometre scale. XPS confirmed the formation of the matrix and the presence of the dopants in the SrF2 host. The PL of the nanophosphor samples were studied using different excitation sources. The phenomenon of energy transfer from Ce3+ to Eu2+ has been demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials and Devices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Dispersion Process and Effect of Oleic Acid on Properties of Cellulose Sulfate- Oleic Acid Composite Film
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2346-2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052346
Received: 22 March 2015 / Revised: 5 April 2015 / Accepted: 17 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cellulose sulfate (CS) is a newly developed cellulose derivative. The work aimed to investigate the effect of oleic acid (OA) content on properties of CS-OA film. The process of oleic acid dispersion into film was described to evaluate its effect on the
[...] Read more.
The cellulose sulfate (CS) is a newly developed cellulose derivative. The work aimed to investigate the effect of oleic acid (OA) content on properties of CS-OA film. The process of oleic acid dispersion into film was described to evaluate its effect on the properties of the film. Among the formulations evaluated, the OA addition decreased the solubility and water vapor permeability of the CS-OA film. The surface contact angle changed from 64.2° to 94.0° by increasing CS/OA ratio from 1:0 to 1:0.25 (w/w). The TS increased with OA content below 15% and decreased with OA over 15%, but the ε decreased with higher OA content. The micro-cracking matrices and micro pores in the film indicated the condense structure of the film destroyed by the incorporation of oleic acid. No chemical interaction between the OA and CS was observed in the XRD and FTIR spectrum. Film formulation containing 2% (w/w) CS, 0.3% (w/w) glycerol and 0.3% (w/w) OA, showed good properties of mechanic, barrier to moisture and homogeneity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top