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Special Issue "Bioceramics"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Andrew J. Ruys

Director of Biomedical Engineering (Education), Faculty of Engineering, University of Sydney, AMME J07, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +612 9351 8610
Interests: biomedical engineering; synthesis and testing of biomaterials; the design of associated medical devices and technologies; bioceramics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioceramics have come of age in the 21st century. Two unique and revolutionary areas stand out: tissue-bonding bioactivity, and ultra-wear-resistant bioinert bearings for joint prostheses.

Bioactivity, the capability of bonding to hard and soft tissue in vivo, is a property for which calcium phosphate bioceramics have been a strong research focus for some decades, both as polycrystalline calcium phosphate ceramics and as calcium phosphate silicate bioactive glass and glass ceramics, commonly referred to as bioglass. For some decades now, the direct bonding osteogenesis of hydroxyapatite with bone in vivo has been well known and developed commercially, primarily in bioactive coatings on metallic implants. Biodegradable calcium phosphates such as tricalcium phosphates are widely used in synthetic bone grafts. Bioactive glass is capable not only of bonding with bone in vivo, but certain compositions can even bond with soft tissues in vivo, giving rise to a new class of bioglass-doped polymer scaffolds and implants capable of soft-tissue bonding in vivo. The whole field of connective-tissue engineering is underpinned by scaffolds made from or doped with bioactive bioceramics. Many other issues are also important in the bioactivity of bioceramics, such as micro and nano topography, growth factors, and trace ion additives such as silicon magnesium and strontium.

Alumina-based bioceramics have revolutionised the hip replacement in the last decade with the rise of alumina and zirconia-toughened-alumina ceramics as the bearing components of hip joints from virtually non-existent a decade ago to now more than 50% of the global market, and rising rapidly. This is due to the Australian discovery (Ron Garvie 1972) of zirconia transformation toughening, and the discovery in the 1990s that tetragonal zirconia nanoparticles were stable in an alumina matrix in vivo. Not only are the ceramic wear rates hundreds of times lower than polymers and metals, the wear particles of alumina and zirconia are benign, unlike metallic wear particles which can be toxic, and polyethylene wear particles which are an irritant.

There are many other bioceramic technologies and applications. The field is rapidly advancing into new areas of discovery.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Andrew Ruys
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • bioceramics
  • calcium phosphate, hydrooxyapatite
  • bioglass/bioactive glass
  • alumina, zirconia, ZTA
  • bone graft, scaffold
  • bioactivity

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Bone Augmentation in Rabbit Tibia Using Microfixed Cobalt-Chromium Membranes with Whole Blood and Platelet-Rich Plasma
Materials 2015, 8(8), 4843-4856; doi:10.3390/ma8084843
Received: 2 May 2015 / Revised: 6 June 2015 / Accepted: 29 June 2015 / Published: 30 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Bone augmentation is a subject of intensive investigation in regenerative bone medicine and constitutes a clinical situation in which autogenous bone grafts or synthetic materials are used to aid new bone formation. Method: Based on a non-critical defect, Co-Cr barrier membranes were
[...] Read more.
Background: Bone augmentation is a subject of intensive investigation in regenerative bone medicine and constitutes a clinical situation in which autogenous bone grafts or synthetic materials are used to aid new bone formation. Method: Based on a non-critical defect, Co-Cr barrier membranes were placed on six adult Fauve de Bourgogne rabbits, divided into two groups: whole blood and PRP. Three densitometric controls were performed during the experiment. The animals were euthanized at 30, 45, 60, and 110 days. The presence of newly formed bone was observed. Samples for histological studies were taken from the augmentation center. Results: External and internal bone tissue augmentation was observed in almost all cases. Significant differences between PRP- and whole blood–stimulated bone augmentation were not observed. At 60 days, bones with PRP presented higher angiogenesis, which may indicate more proliferation and cellular activity. Conclusion: PRP activates the bone regeneration process under optimized conditions by stimulation of osteoblast proliferation after six weeks, when a significant difference in cellular activity was observed. Membranes could stimulate bone augmentation at the site of placement and in the surrounding areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Open AccessArticle Impact of Particle Size of Ceramic Granule Blends on Mechanical Strength and Porosity of 3D Printed Scaffolds
Materials 2015, 8(8), 4720-4732; doi:10.3390/ma8084720
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 21 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
3D printing is a promising method for the fabrication of scaffolds in the field of bone tissue engineering. To date, the mechanical strength of 3D printed ceramic scaffolds is not sufficient for a variety of applications in the reconstructive surgery. Mechanical strength is
[...] Read more.
3D printing is a promising method for the fabrication of scaffolds in the field of bone tissue engineering. To date, the mechanical strength of 3D printed ceramic scaffolds is not sufficient for a variety of applications in the reconstructive surgery. Mechanical strength is directly in relation with the porosity of the 3D printed scaffolds. The porosity is directly influenced by particle size and particle-size distribution of the raw material. To investigate this impact, a hydroxyapatite granule blend with a wide particle size distribution was fractioned by sieving. The specific fractions and bimodal mixtures of the sieved granule blend were used to 3D print specimens. It has been shown that an optimized arrangement of fractions with large and small particles can provide 3D printed specimens with good mechanical strength due to a higher packing density. An increase of mechanical strength can possibly expand the application area of 3D printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Open AccessArticle Processing and Properties of Zirconia-Toughened Alumina Prepared by Gelcasting
Materials 2015, 8(7), 4344-4362; doi:10.3390/ma8074344
Received: 6 May 2015 / Revised: 10 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 July 2015 / Published: 16 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) using yttria-stabilised zirconia is a good option for ceramic-ceramic bearing couples for hip joint replacement. Gelcasting is a colloidal processing technique capable of producing complex products with a range of dimensions and materials by a relatively low-cost production process. Using
[...] Read more.
Zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) using yttria-stabilised zirconia is a good option for ceramic-ceramic bearing couples for hip joint replacement. Gelcasting is a colloidal processing technique capable of producing complex products with a range of dimensions and materials by a relatively low-cost production process. Using gelcasting, ZTA samples were prepared, optimising the stages of fabrication, including slurry preparation with varying solid loadings, moulding and de-moulding, drying and sintering. Density, hardness, fracture toughness, flexural strength and grain size were observed relative to slurry solid loadings between 58 and 62 vol. %, as well as sintering temperatures of 1550 °C and 1650 °C. Optimal conditions found were plastic mould, 4000 g/mol PEG with 30 vol. % concentration, 61% solid loading and Ts = 1550 °C. ZTA samples of high density (maximum 99.1%), high hardness (maximum 1902 HV), high fracture toughness (maximum 5.43 MPa m1/2) and high flexural strength (maximum 618 MPa) were successfully prepared by gelcasting and pressureless sintering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Technique for the Connection of Ceramic and Titanium Implant Components Using Glass Solder Bonding
Materials 2015, 8(7), 4287-4298; doi:10.3390/ma8074287
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 2 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
PDF Full-text (3422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Both titanium and ceramic materials provide specific advantages in dental implant technology. However, some problems, like hypersensitivity reactions, corrosion and mechanical failure, have been reported. Therefore, the combining of both materials to take advantage of their pros, while eliminating their respective cons, would
[...] Read more.
Both titanium and ceramic materials provide specific advantages in dental implant technology. However, some problems, like hypersensitivity reactions, corrosion and mechanical failure, have been reported. Therefore, the combining of both materials to take advantage of their pros, while eliminating their respective cons, would be desirable. Hence, we introduced a new technique to bond titanium and ceramic materials by means of a silica-based glass ceramic solder. Cylindrical compound samples (Ø10 mm × 56 mm) made of alumina toughened zirconia (ATZ), as well as titanium grade 5, were bonded by glass solder on their end faces. As a control, a two-component adhesive glue was utilized. The samples were investigated without further treatment, after 30 and 90 days of storage in distilled water at room temperature, and after aging. All samples were subjected to quasi-static four-point-bending tests. We found that the glass solder bonding provided significantly higher bending strength than adhesive glue bonding. In contrast to the glued samples, the bending strength of the soldered samples remained unaltered by the storage and aging treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses confirmed the presence of a stable solder-ceramic interface. Therefore, the glass solder technique represents a promising method for optimizing dental and orthopedic implant bondings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Open AccessArticle Niobium-Doped Hydroxyapatite Bioceramics: Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Cytocompatibility
Materials 2015, 8(7), 4191-4209; doi:10.3390/ma8074191
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 1 July 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (6460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Doping calcium phosphates with ionic species can play an important role in biological responses promoting alkaline phosphatase activity, and, therefore inducing the generation of new bone. Thus, in this study, the synthesis of niobium-doped hydroxyapatite (Nb-HA) nanosize particles obtained by the precipitation process
[...] Read more.
Doping calcium phosphates with ionic species can play an important role in biological responses promoting alkaline phosphatase activity, and, therefore inducing the generation of new bone. Thus, in this study, the synthesis of niobium-doped hydroxyapatite (Nb-HA) nanosize particles obtained by the precipitation process in aqueous media followed by thermal treatment is presented. The bioceramics were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and thermal analysis regarding their chemical composition, structure and morphology. The results showed that the precipitate dried at 110 °C was composed of amorphous calcium phosphate and HA, with polidisperse particles ranging from micro to nano dimensions. After the thermal treatment at 900 °C, the bioceramic system evolved predominantly to HA crystalline phase, with evident features of particle sintering and reduction of surface area. Moreover, the addition of 10 mol% of niobium salt precursor during the synthesis indicated the complete incorporation of the Nb(V) species in the HA crystals with detectable changes in the original lattice parameters. Furthermore, the incorporation of Nb ions caused a significant refinement on the average particle size of HA. Finally, the preliminary cytocompatibility response of the biomaterials was accessed by human osteoblast cell culture using MTT and resazurin assays, which demonstrated no cytotoxicity of the Nb-alloyed hydroxyapatite. Thus, these findings seem promising for developing innovative Nb-doped calcium phosphates as artificial biomaterials for potential use in bone replacements and repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Nanosized Hydroxyapatite Coating on PEEK Implants Enhances Early Bone Formation: A Histological and Three-Dimensional Investigation in Rabbit Bone
Materials 2015, 8(7), 3815-3830; doi:10.3390/ma8073815
Received: 24 March 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) has been frequently used in spinal surgery with good clinical results. The material has a low elastic modulus and is radiolucent. However, in oral implantology PEEK has displayed inferior ability to osseointegrate compared to titanium materials. One idea to
[...] Read more.
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) has been frequently used in spinal surgery with good clinical results. The material has a low elastic modulus and is radiolucent. However, in oral implantology PEEK has displayed inferior ability to osseointegrate compared to titanium materials. One idea to reinforce PEEK would be to coat it with hydroxyapatite (HA), a ceramic material of good biocompatibility. In the present study we analyzed HA-coated PEEK tibial implants via histology and radiography when following up at 3 and 12 weeks. Of the 48 implants, 24 were HA-coated PEEK screws (test) and another 24 implants served as uncoated PEEK controls. HA-coated PEEK implants were always osseointegrated. The total bone area (BA) was higher for test compared to control implants at 3 (p < 0.05) and 12 weeks (p < 0.05). Mean bone implant contact (BIC) percentage was significantly higher (p = 0.024) for the test compared to control implants at 3 weeks and higher without statistical significance at 12 weeks. The effect of HA-coating was concluded to be significant with respect to early bone formation, and HA-coated PEEK implants may represent a good material to serve as bone anchored clinical devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Open AccessArticle Biomimetic Coating on Porous Alumina for Tissue Engineering: Characterisation by Cell Culture and Confocal Microscopy
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3584-3606; doi:10.3390/ma8063584
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
PDF Full-text (4032 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study porous alumina samples were prepared and then coated using the biomimetic coating technique using a five times Simulated Body Fluid (5.0SBF) as the growth solution. A coating was achieved after pre-treatment with concentrated acid. From elemental analysis, the coating contained
[...] Read more.
In this study porous alumina samples were prepared and then coated using the biomimetic coating technique using a five times Simulated Body Fluid (5.0SBF) as the growth solution. A coating was achieved after pre-treatment with concentrated acid. From elemental analysis, the coating contained calcium and phosphorous, but also sodium and chlorine. Halite was identified by XRD, a sodium chloride phase. Sintering was done to remove the halite phase. Once halite was burnt off, the calcium phosphate crystals were not covered with halite and, therefore, the apatite phases can be clearly observed. Cell culturing showed sufficient cell attachment to the less porous alumina, Sample B, that has more calcium phosphate growth, while the porous alumina, Sample A, with minimal calcium phosphate growth attained very little cell attachment. This is likely due to the contribution that calcium phosphate plays in the attachment of bone-like cells to a bioinert ceramic such as alumina. These results were repeated on both SEM and confocal microscopy analysis. Confocal microscopy was a novel characterisation approach which gave useful information and was a visual aid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Open AccessArticle Quantitative Evaluation of Contamination on Dental Zirconia Ceramic by Silicone Disclosing Agents after Different Cleaning Procedures
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2650-2657; doi:10.3390/ma8052650
Received: 23 January 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning procedures for air-abraded zirconia after contamination with two silicone disclosing agents. Air-abraded zirconia ceramic specimens (IPS e.max ZirCAD) were contaminated with either GC Fit Checker white or GC Fit Checker II.
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning procedures for air-abraded zirconia after contamination with two silicone disclosing agents. Air-abraded zirconia ceramic specimens (IPS e.max ZirCAD) were contaminated with either GC Fit Checker white or GC Fit Checker II. Untreated zirconia specimens were used as control. Afterwards the surfaces were cleaned either with waterspray or ultrasonically in 99% isopropanol or using a newly developed cleaning paste (Ivoclean). After cleaning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed and the relative peak intensities of Zr, C and Si were used for a qualitative comparison of the residuals. There was no significant difference between the two different silicone disclosing agents. An additional cleaning step with isopropanol led to a significantly lower amount of residuals on the surface, but an additional cleaning process with Ivoclean did not reduce the amount of carbon residuals in comparison to the isopropanol cleaning. Just the silicone amount on the surface was reduced. None of the investigated cleaning processes removed all residuals from the contaminated surface. Standard cleaning processes do not remove all residuals of the silicone disclosing agent from the surface. This may lead to a failure of the resin-ceramic bonding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Open AccessArticle Bioactive Wollastonite-Diopside Foams from Preceramic Polymers and Reactive Oxide Fillers
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2480-2494; doi:10.3390/ma8052480
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (5399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wollastonite (CaSiO3) and diopside (CaMgSi2O6) silicate ceramics have been widely investigated as highly bioactive materials, suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. In the present paper, highly porous glass-ceramic foams, with both wollastonite and diopside as crystal phases,
[...] Read more.
Wollastonite (CaSiO3) and diopside (CaMgSi2O6) silicate ceramics have been widely investigated as highly bioactive materials, suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. In the present paper, highly porous glass-ceramic foams, with both wollastonite and diopside as crystal phases, were developed from the thermal treatment of silicone polymers filled with CaO and MgO precursors, in the form of micro-sized particles. The foaming was due to water release, at low temperature, in the polymeric matrix before ceramic conversion, mainly operated by hydrated sodium phosphate, used as a secondary filler. This additive proved to be “multifunctional”, since it additionally favored the phase development, by the formation of a liquid phase upon firing, in turn promoting the ionic interdiffusion. The liquid phase was promoted also by the incorporation of powders of a glass crystallizing itself in wollastonite and diopside, with significant improvements in both structural integrity and crushing strength. The biological characterization of polymer-derived wollastonite-diopside foams, to assess the bioactivity of the samples, was performed by means of a cell culture test. The MTT assay and LDH activity tests gave positive results in terms of cell viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Open AccessArticle Process Optimisation to Control the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Biomimetic Nanoscale Hydroxyapatites Prepared Using Wet Chemical Precipitation
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2297-2310; doi:10.3390/ma8052297
Received: 25 February 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 20 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite nanoscale particles (nHA) were prepared by wet chemical precipitation using four different synthesis methods. Differences in physico-chemical properties including morphology, particle-size, and crystallinity were investigated following alteration of critical processing parameters. The nanoparticles were also studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform
[...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite nanoscale particles (nHA) were prepared by wet chemical precipitation using four different synthesis methods. Differences in physico-chemical properties including morphology, particle-size, and crystallinity were investigated following alteration of critical processing parameters. The nanoparticles were also studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance mode (FTIR-ATR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectrometry. The results showed that the particles obtained were composed of nHA, with different morphologies and aspect ratios (1.5 to 4) and degrees of crystallinity (40% to 70% following calcination) depending on the different process parameters of the synthesis method used, such as temperature, ripening time and pH. This study demonstrated that relatively small adjustments to processing conditions of different wet chemical preparation methods significantly affect the morphological and chemical characteristics of nHA. For the predicable preparation of biomimetic nHA for specific applications, the selection of both production method and careful control of processing conditions are paramount. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Open AccessArticle Medium-Term Function of a 3D Printed TCP/HA Structure as a New Osteoconductive Scaffold for Vertical Bone Augmentation: A Simulation by BMP-2 Activation
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2174-2190; doi:10.3390/ma8052174
Received: 2 March 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 20 April 2015 / Published: 28 April 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: A 3D-printed construct made of orthogonally layered strands of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite has recently become available. The material provides excellent osteoconductivity. We simulated a medium-term experiment in a sheep calvarial model by priming the blocks with BMP-2. Vertical bone growth/maturation
[...] Read more.
Introduction: A 3D-printed construct made of orthogonally layered strands of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite has recently become available. The material provides excellent osteoconductivity. We simulated a medium-term experiment in a sheep calvarial model by priming the blocks with BMP-2. Vertical bone growth/maturation and material resorption were evaluated. Materials and methods: Titanium hemispherical caps were filled with either bare- or BMP-2 primed constructs and placed onto the calvaria of adult sheep (n = 8). Histomorphometry was performed after 8 and 16 weeks. Results: After 8 weeks, relative to bare constructs, BMP-2 stimulation led to a two-fold increase in bone volume (Bare: 22% ± 2.1%; BMP-2 primed: 50% ± 3%) and a 3-fold decrease in substitute volume (Bare: 47% ± 5%; BMP-2 primed: 18% ± 2%). These rates were still observed at 16 weeks. The new bone grew and matured to a haversian-like structure while the substitute material resorbed via cell- and chemical-mediation. Conclusion: By priming the 3D construct with BMP-2, bone metabolism was physiologically accelerated, that is, enhancing vertical bone growth and maturation as well as material bioresorption. The scaffolding function of the block was maintained, leaving time for the bone to grow and mature to a haversian-like structure. In parallel, the material resorbed via cell-mediated and chemical processes. These promising results must be confirmed in clinical tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Open AccessArticle Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties Improvement in Liquid-Phase-Sintered Hydroxyapatite by Laser Sintering
Materials 2015, 8(3), 1162-1175; doi:10.3390/ma8031162
Received: 22 January 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) as a liquid phase was introduced into hydroxyapatite (HAp) to prepare bone scaffolds. The effects of the CAS content (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt%) on microstructure and mechanical properties of HAp ceramics were investigated.
[...] Read more.
CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) as a liquid phase was introduced into hydroxyapatite (HAp) to prepare bone scaffolds. The effects of the CAS content (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt%) on microstructure and mechanical properties of HAp ceramics were investigated. The optimal compression strength, fracture toughness and Vickers hardness reached 22.22 MPa, 1.68 MPa·m1/2 and 4.47 GPa when 3 wt% CAS was added, which were increased by 105%, 63% and 11% compared with those of HAp ceramics without CAS, respectively. The improvement of the mechanical properties was attributed to the improved densification, which was caused by the solid particle to rearrange during liquid phase sintering. Moreover, simulated body fluid (SBF) study indicated the HAp ceramics could maintain the mechanical properties and form a bone-like apatite layer when they were immersed in SBF. Cell culture was used to evaluate biocompatibility of the HAp ceramics. The results demonstrated MG-63 cells adhered and spread well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Open AccessArticle Cellular Response to Doping of High Porosity Foamed Alumina with Ca, P, Mg, and Si
Materials 2015, 8(3), 1074-1088; doi:10.3390/ma8031074
Received: 28 December 2014 / Revised: 28 February 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 13 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Foamed alumina was previously synthesised by direct foaming of sulphate salt blends varying ammonium mole fraction (AMF), foaming heating rate and sintering temperature. The optimal product was produced with 0.33AMF, foaming at 100 °C/h and sintering at 1600 °C. This product attained high
[...] Read more.
Foamed alumina was previously synthesised by direct foaming of sulphate salt blends varying ammonium mole fraction (AMF), foaming heating rate and sintering temperature. The optimal product was produced with 0.33AMF, foaming at 100 °C/h and sintering at 1600 °C. This product attained high porosity of 94.39%, large average pore size of 300 µm and the highest compressive strength of 384 kPa. To improve bioactivity, doping of porous alumina by soaking in dilute or saturated solutions of Ca, P, Mg, CaP or CaP + Mg was done. Saturated solutions of Ca, P, Mg, CaP and CaP + Mg were made with excess salt in distilled water and decanted. Dilute solutions were made by diluting the 100% solution to 10% concentration. Doping with Si was done using the sol gel method at 100% concentration only. Cell culture was carried out with MG63 osteosarcoma cells. Cellular response to the Si and P doped samples was positive with high cell populations and cell layer formation. The impact of doping with phosphate produced a result not previously reported. The cellular response showed that both Si and P doping improved the biocompatibility of the foamed alumina. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Zirconia as a Dental Biomaterial
Materials 2015, 8(8), 4978-4991; doi:10.3390/ma8084978
Received: 24 June 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ceramics are very important in the science of dental biomaterials. Among all dental ceramics, zirconia is in evidence as a dental biomaterial and it is the material of choice in contemporary restorative dentistry. Zirconia has been applied as structural material for dental bridges,
[...] Read more.
Ceramics are very important in the science of dental biomaterials. Among all dental ceramics, zirconia is in evidence as a dental biomaterial and it is the material of choice in contemporary restorative dentistry. Zirconia has been applied as structural material for dental bridges, crowns, inserts, and implants, mostly because of its biocompatibility, high fracture toughness, and radiopacity. However, the clinical success of restorative dentistry has to consider the adhesion to different substrates, which has offered a great challenge to dental zirconia research and development. This study characterizes zirconia as a dental biomaterial, presenting the current consensus and challenges to its dental applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
Open AccessReview A Critical Review of Dental Implant Materials with an Emphasis on Titanium versus Zirconia
Materials 2015, 8(3), 932-958; doi:10.3390/ma8030932
Received: 30 December 2014 / Revised: 20 January 2015 / Accepted: 12 February 2015 / Published: 5 March 2015
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (1599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of the current publication is to provide a comprehensive literature review on the topic of dental implant materials. The following paper focuses on conventional titanium implants and more recently introduced and increasingly popular zirconia implants. Major subtopics include the material science
[...] Read more.
The goal of the current publication is to provide a comprehensive literature review on the topic of dental implant materials. The following paper focuses on conventional titanium implants and more recently introduced and increasingly popular zirconia implants. Major subtopics include the material science and the clinical considerations involving both implant materials and the influence of their physical properties on the treatment outcome. Titanium remains the gold standard for the fabrication of oral implants, even though sensitivity does occur, though its clinical relevance is not yet clear. Zirconia implants may prove to be promising in the future; however, further in vitro and well-designed in vivo clinical studies are needed before such a recommendation can be made. Special considerations and technical experience are needed when dealing with zirconia implants to minimize the incidence of mechanical failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)

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