E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Novel Bone Substitute Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Franz E. Weber

Center of Dental Medicine, Oral Biotechnology & Bioengineering/MKG, University of Zurich, Plattenstrasse 11, , CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +41 44 634 3140
Interests: hydrogels, bone substitute materials, additive manufacturing, GTR/GBR membranes, osteoconduction, osteoinduction, delivery of epigenetically active small chemicals, delivery of BMPs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past few decades, we have witnessed new developments in bone substitute materials. These developments have been based on a better understanding of osteoinduction, osteoconduction, and stem cells for bone tissue engineering. However, autologous bone grafts are still the gold standard for daily clinical treatments. The main focus of the forthcoming ‘Novel Bone Substitute Materials’ issue is to present a comprehensive overview of these new developments. Recent advances in the science and technology of bone substitutes will be addressed. The various topics encompass all kinds of new materials, surface modifications, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, and the application of stem cells, as well as sophisticated examples of successful combinations already tested for their application in dentistry and orthopedics.

With immense pleasure, I invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are welcome.

Franz E. Weber
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • ceramics
  • composites
  • osteoconduction
  • creeping substitution
  • osteoinduction
  • growth factors
  • double delivery of growth factors
  • instructive surface modifications
  • bio-medical applications
  • stem cells
  • hydrogels
  • vascularized bone grafts

Published Papers (9 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-9
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Bone Regeneration and Remodeling within a Unidirectional Porous Hydroxyapatite Bone Substitute at a Cortical Bone Defect Site: Histological Analysis at One and Two Years after Implantation
Materials 2015, 8(8), 4884-4894; doi:10.3390/ma8084884
Received: 11 June 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 30 July 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite (UDPHAp) is an artificial bone substitute with a unique microstructure consisting of 100–300-µm oval pores that present the material unidirectionally. UDPHAp has a compression strength of 14 MPa and a porosity of 75%, which promotes cell migration and capillary formation
[...] Read more.
Unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite (UDPHAp) is an artificial bone substitute with a unique microstructure consisting of 100–300-µm oval pores that present the material unidirectionally. UDPHAp has a compression strength of 14 MPa and a porosity of 75%, which promotes cell migration and capillary formation within the material. Despite these advantageous properties, bone remodeling and bone formation with UDPHAp remain unclear. To examine long-term remodeling and differences in bone formation based on the defect site, trapezoidal prism-shaped UDPHAp blocks were implanted into rectangular-shaped cortical bone defects in the proximal tibia of Japanese white rabbits. Histological analysis performed at 52 and 104 weeks after implantation revealed that bone and capillaries had formed within the implanted UDPHAp material. Bone formed within the UDPHAp implanted in the cortical defect of rabbit tibia and remodel up to two years. The percentage of new bone area within UDPHAp was larger in cortical lesions than that in medullary lesions. These findings suggest that UDPHAp is a promising material for the repair of non-critical-sized cortical bone defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)
Open AccessArticle A Bone Sample Containing a Bone Graft Substitute Analyzed by Correlating Density Information Obtained by X-ray Micro Tomography with Compositional Information Obtained by Raman Microscopy
Materials 2015, 8(7), 3831-3853; doi:10.3390/ma8073831
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
PDF Full-text (3926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The ability of bone graft substitutes to promote new bone formation has been increasingly used in the medical field to repair skeletal defects or to replace missing bone in a broad range of applications in dentistry and orthopedics. A common way to assess
[...] Read more.
The ability of bone graft substitutes to promote new bone formation has been increasingly used in the medical field to repair skeletal defects or to replace missing bone in a broad range of applications in dentistry and orthopedics. A common way to assess such materials is via micro computed tomography (µ-CT), through the density information content provided by the absorption of X-rays. Information on the chemical composition of a material can be obtained via Raman spectroscopy. By investigating a bone sample from miniature pigs containing the bone graft substitute Bio Oss®, we pursued the target of assessing to what extent the density information gained by µ-CT imaging matches the chemical information content provided by Raman spectroscopic imaging. Raman images and Raman correlation maps of the investigated sample were used in order to generate a Raman based segmented image by means of an agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting segments, showing chemically related areas, were subsequently compared with the µ-CT image by means of a one-way ANOVA. We found out that to a certain extent typical gray-level values (and the related histograms) in the µ-CT image can be reliably related to specific segments within the image resulting from the cluster analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)
Open AccessArticle 3D Printable Biophotopolymers for in Vivo Bone Regeneration
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3685-3700; doi:10.3390/ma8063685
Received: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (952 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigated two novel biophotopolymer classes that are chemically based on non-toxic poly (vinyl alcohol). These vinylesters and vinylcarbonates were compared to standard acrylates in vitro on MC3T3-E1 cells and in vivo in a small animal model. In vitro, both
[...] Read more.
The present study investigated two novel biophotopolymer classes that are chemically based on non-toxic poly (vinyl alcohol). These vinylesters and vinylcarbonates were compared to standard acrylates in vitro on MC3T3-E1 cells and in vivo in a small animal model. In vitro, both vinylester and vinylcarbonate monomers showed about tenfold less cytotoxicity when compared to acrylates (IC50: 2.922 mM and 2.392 mM vs. 0.201 mM) and at least threefold higher alkaline phosphatase activity (17.038 and 18.836 vs. 5.795, measured at [10 mM]). In vivo, polymerized 3D cellular structures were implanted into the distal femoral condyle of 16 New Zealand White Rabbits and were observed for periods from 4 to 12 weeks. New bone formation and bone to implant contact was evaluated by histomorphometry at end of observation. Vinylesters showed similar rates of new bone formation but significantly less (p = 0.002) bone to implant contact, when compared to acrylates. In contrast, the implantation of vinylcarbonate based biophotopolymers led to significantly higher rates of newly formed bone (p < 0.001) and bone to implant contact (p < 0.001). Additionally, distinct signs of polymer degradation could be observed in vinylesters and vinylcarbonates by histology. We conclude, that vinylesters and vinylcarbonates are promising new biophotopolymers, that outmatch available poly(lactic acid) and (meth)acrylate based materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)
Open AccessArticle Graft Remodeling following Transcrestal Sinus Floor Elevation via the Gel-Pressure Technique (GPT) and Pasteous Nano-Crystalline Hydroxyapatite Bone Substitute
Materials 2015, 8(6), 3210-3220; doi:10.3390/ma8063210
Received: 5 May 2015 / Revised: 24 May 2015 / Accepted: 28 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
PDF Full-text (2758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone grafting of the maxillary sinus is attempted to compensate for sinus pneumatization and permit reliable insertion of endosseous dental implants for prosthetic rehabilitation. The aim of the present clinical investigation was to study bone regeneration four months after transcrestal sinus floor elevation
[...] Read more.
Bone grafting of the maxillary sinus is attempted to compensate for sinus pneumatization and permit reliable insertion of endosseous dental implants for prosthetic rehabilitation. The aim of the present clinical investigation was to study bone regeneration four months after transcrestal sinus floor elevation via the Gel-Pressure Technique (GPT) and application of pasteous nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute. A total of 25 patients with deficient alveolar ridges in the posterior maxilla (mean residual bone height: 4.7 ± 1.8 mm) were subjected to 32 flapless transcrestal sinus floor augmentations and simultaneous insertion of 40 implants. Sinus membrane elevation height averaged 11.2 ± 2.7 mm and minimal vertical graft resorption of 0.1 mm was observed after four months. Radiographic bone density averaged 460 Hounsfield units in regions adjacent to the native jawbone (1 to 7 mm distance), while reduction of bone density by −7.2%, −11.3%, −14.8%, −19.6% and −22.7% was recorded in more apical regions of 8, 9, 10, 11, and ≥12 mm distance to the original sinus floor, respectively. The results suggest that graft remodeling is completed up to a distance of 7 mm within a healing period of four months after sinus augmentation using nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)
Open AccessArticle Bone Replacement Materials and Techniques Used for Achieving Vertical Alveolar Bone Augmentation
Materials 2015, 8(6), 2953-2993; doi:10.3390/ma8062953
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 19 May 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alveolar bone augmentation in vertical dimension remains the holy grail of periodontal tissue engineering. Successful dental implant placement for restoration of edentulous sites depends on the quality and quantity of alveolar bone available in all spatial dimensions. There are several surgical techniques used
[...] Read more.
Alveolar bone augmentation in vertical dimension remains the holy grail of periodontal tissue engineering. Successful dental implant placement for restoration of edentulous sites depends on the quality and quantity of alveolar bone available in all spatial dimensions. There are several surgical techniques used alone or in combination with natural or synthetic graft materials to achieve vertical alveolar bone augmentation. While continuously improving surgical techniques combined with the use of auto- or allografts provide the most predictable clinical outcomes, their success often depends on the status of recipient tissues. The morbidity associated with donor sites for auto-grafts makes these techniques less appealing to both patients and clinicians. New developments in material sciences offer a range of synthetic replacements for natural grafts to address the shortcoming of a second surgical site and relatively high resorption rates. This narrative review focuses on existing techniques, natural tissues and synthetic biomaterials commonly used to achieve vertical bone height gain in order to successfully restore edentulous ridges with implant-supported prostheses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Novel Porcine Graft for Regeneration of Bone Defects
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2523-2536; doi:10.3390/ma8052523
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 23 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 12 May 2015
PDF Full-text (2262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone regeneration procedures require alternative graft biomaterials to those for autogenous bone. Therefore, we developed a novel porcine graft using particle sizes of 250–500 μm and 500–1000 μm in rabbit calvarial bone defects and compared the graft properties with those of commercial hydroxyapatite
[...] Read more.
Bone regeneration procedures require alternative graft biomaterials to those for autogenous bone. Therefore, we developed a novel porcine graft using particle sizes of 250–500 μm and 500–1000 μm in rabbit calvarial bone defects and compared the graft properties with those of commercial hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) over eight weeks. Surgery was performed in 20 adult male New Zealand white rabbits. During a standardized surgical procedure, four calvarial critical-size defects of 5 mm diameter and 3 mm depth were prepared. The defects were filled with HA/β-TCP, 250–500 μm or 500–1000 μm porcine graft, and control defects were not filled. The animals were grouped for sacrifice at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-surgery. Subsequently, sample blocks were prepared for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning and histological sectioning. Similar bone formations were observed in all three treatment groups, although the 250–500 μm porcine graft performed slightly better. Rabbit calvarial bone tissue positively responded to porcine grafts and commercial HA/β-TCP, structural analyses showed similar crystallinity and porosity of the porcine and HA/β-TCP grafts, which facilitated bone formation through osteoconduction. These porcine grafts can be considered as graft substitutes, although further development is required for clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)
Open AccessArticle Fibrin Hydrogel Based Bone Substitute Tethered with BMP-2 and BMP-2/7 Heterodimers
Materials 2015, 8(3), 977-991; doi:10.3390/ma8030977
Received: 6 January 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 6 March 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current clinically used delivery methods for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are collagen based and require large concentrations that can lead to dangerous side effects. Fibrin hydrogels can serve as osteoinductive bone substitute materials in non-load bearing bone defects in combination with BMPs. Two
[...] Read more.
Current clinically used delivery methods for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are collagen based and require large concentrations that can lead to dangerous side effects. Fibrin hydrogels can serve as osteoinductive bone substitute materials in non-load bearing bone defects in combination with BMPs. Two strategies to even further optimize such a fibrin based system include employing more potent BMP heterodimers and engineering growth factors that can be covalently tethered to and slowly released from a fibrin matrix. Here we present an engineered BMP-2/BMP-7 heterodimer where an N-terminal transglutaminase substrate domain in the BMP-2 portion provides covalent attachment to fibrin together with a central plasmin substrate domain, a cleavage site for local release of the attached BMP-2/BMP-7 heterodimer under the influence of cell-activated plasmin. In vitro and in vivo results revealed that the engineered BMP-2/BMP-7 heterodimer induces significantly more alkaline phosphatase activity in pluripotent cells and bone formation in a rat calvarial model than the engineered BMP-2 homodimer. Therefore, the engineered BMP-2/BMP-7 heterodimer could be used to reduce the amount of BMP needed for clinical effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Preclinical in vivo Performance of Novel Biodegradable, Electrospun Poly(lactic acid) and Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Nanocomposites: A Review
Materials 2015, 8(8), 4912-4931; doi:10.3390/ma8084912
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 26 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 3 August 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (864 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone substitute materials have witnessed tremendous development over the past decades and autogenous bone may still be considered the gold standard for many clinicians and clinical approaches in order to rebuild and restore bone defects. However, a plethora of novel xenogenic and synthetic
[...] Read more.
Bone substitute materials have witnessed tremendous development over the past decades and autogenous bone may still be considered the gold standard for many clinicians and clinical approaches in order to rebuild and restore bone defects. However, a plethora of novel xenogenic and synthetic bone substitute materials have been introduced in recent years in the field of bone regeneration. As the development of bone is actually a calcification process within a collagen fiber arrangement, the use of scaffolds in the formation of fibers may offer some advantages, along with additional handling characteristics. This review focuses on material characteristics and degradation behavior of electrospun biodegradable polyester scaffolds. Furthermore, we concentrated on the preclinical in vivo performance with regard to bone regeneration in preclinical studies. The major findings are as follows: Scaffold composition and architecture determine its biological behavior and degradation characteristics; The incorporation of inorganic substances and/or organic substances within composite scaffolds enhances new bone formation; L-poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite scaffolds, especially when combined with basic substances like hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate or demineralized bone powder, seem not to induce inflammatory tissue reactions in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)
Open AccessReview Mineralized Collagen: Rationale, Current Status, and Clinical Applications
Materials 2015, 8(8), 4733-4750; doi:10.3390/ma8084733
Received: 16 May 2015 / Revised: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 13 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a review of the rationale for the in vitro mineralization process, preparation methods, and clinical applications of mineralized collagen. The rationale for natural mineralized collagen and the related mineralization process has been investigated for decades. Based on the understanding of
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a review of the rationale for the in vitro mineralization process, preparation methods, and clinical applications of mineralized collagen. The rationale for natural mineralized collagen and the related mineralization process has been investigated for decades. Based on the understanding of natural mineralized collagen and its formation process, many attempts have been made to prepare biomimetic materials that resemble natural mineralized collagen in both composition and structure. To date, a number of bone substitute materials have been developed based on the principles of mineralized collagen, and some of them have been commercialized and approved by regulatory agencies. The clinical outcomes of mineralized collagen are of significance to advance the evaluation and improvement of related medical device products. Some representative clinical cases have been reported, and there are more clinical applications and long-term follow-ups that currently being performed by many research groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)
Back to Top