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Materials, Volume 8, Issue 4 (April 2015), Pages 1369-2042

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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Contact Heat Transfer Coefficient and Phase Transformation during Hot Stamping of a Hat-Type Part
Materials 2015, 8(4), 2030-2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8042030
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 16 April 2015 / Accepted: 17 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface
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Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the obtained heat transfer coefficient function could provide reasonable finite element prediction for workpiece properties affected by the hot stamping process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessReview Misfit Layer Compounds and Ferecrystals: Model Systems for Thermoelectric Nanocomposites
Materials 2015, 8(4), 2000-2029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8042000
Received: 6 February 2015 / Revised: 3 April 2015 / Accepted: 7 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (4023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A basic summary of thermoelectric principles is presented in a historical context, following the evolution of the field from initial discovery to modern day high-zT materials. A specific focus is placed on nanocomposite materials as a means to solve the challenges presented by
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A basic summary of thermoelectric principles is presented in a historical context, following the evolution of the field from initial discovery to modern day high-zT materials. A specific focus is placed on nanocomposite materials as a means to solve the challenges presented by the contradictory material requirements necessary for efficient thermal energy harvest. Misfit layer compounds are highlighted as an example of a highly ordered anisotropic nanocomposite system. Their layered structure provides the opportunity to use multiple constituents for improved thermoelectric performance, through both enhanced phonon scattering at interfaces and through electronic interactions between the constituents. Recently, a class of metastable, turbostratically-disordered misfit layer compounds has been synthesized using a kinetically controlled approach with low reaction temperatures. The kinetically stabilized structures can be prepared with a variety of constituent ratios and layering schemes, providing an avenue to systematically understand structure-function relationships not possible in the thermodynamic compounds. We summarize the work that has been done to date on these materials. The observed turbostratic disorder has been shown to result in extremely low cross plane thermal conductivity and in plane thermal conductivities that are also very small, suggesting the structural motif could be attractive as thermoelectric materials if the power factor could be improved. The first 10 compounds in the [(PbSe)1+δ]m(TiSe2)n family (m, n ≤ 3) are reported as a case study. As n increases, the magnitude of the Seebeck coefficient is significantly increased without a simultaneous decrease in the in-plane electrical conductivity, resulting in an improved thermoelectric power factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Dimensional Anisotropic Thermoelectrics)
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Open AccessArticle Crystal Quality and Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Concave Patterned Sapphire Substrate
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1993-1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041993
Received: 17 February 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2029 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The crystal quality and light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on concave patterned sapphire substrate (CPSS) were investigated. It was found that the crystal quality of GaN-based LEDs grown on CPSS improved with the decrease of the pattern space (percentage
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The crystal quality and light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on concave patterned sapphire substrate (CPSS) were investigated. It was found that the crystal quality of GaN-based LEDs grown on CPSS improved with the decrease of the pattern space (percentage of c-plane). However, when the pattern space decreased to 0.41 μm (S0.41-GaN), the GaN crystallinity dropped. On the other hand, the light output power of GaN-based LEDs was increased with the decrease of the pattern space due to the change of the light extraction efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Properties of Exchange Coupled All-garnet Magneto-Optic Thin Film Multilayer Structures
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1976-1992; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041976
Received: 3 February 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of exchange coupling on magnetic switching properties of all-garnet multilayer thin film structures are investigated. All-garnet structures are fabricated by sandwiching a magneto-soft material of composition type Bi1.8Lu1.2Fe3.6Al1.4O12 or Bi3Fe
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The effects of exchange coupling on magnetic switching properties of all-garnet multilayer thin film structures are investigated. All-garnet structures are fabricated by sandwiching a magneto-soft material of composition type Bi1.8Lu1.2Fe3.6Al1.4O12 or Bi3Fe5O12:Dy2O3 in between two magneto-hard garnet material layers of composition type Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12 or Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12:Bi2O3. The fabricated RF magnetron sputtered exchange-coupled all-garnet multilayers demonstrate a very attractive combination of magnetic properties, and are of interest for emerging applications in optical sensors and isolators, ultrafast nanophotonics and magneto-plasmonics. An unconventional type of magnetic hysteresis behavior not observed previously in magnetic garnet thin films is reported and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modification of pH Conferring Virucidal Activity on Dental Alginates
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1966-1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041966
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 26 March 2015 / Accepted: 13 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To formulate an alginate dental impression material with virucidal properties, experimental alginate dental impression materials were developed and the formulations adjusted in order to study the effect on pH profiles during setting. Commercially available materials served as a comparison. Eight experimental materials were
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To formulate an alginate dental impression material with virucidal properties, experimental alginate dental impression materials were developed and the formulations adjusted in order to study the effect on pH profiles during setting. Commercially available materials served as a comparison. Eight experimental materials were tested for antiviral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1). Changing the amount of magnesium oxide (MgO) used in the experimental formulations had a marked effect on pH. Increasing MgO concentration corresponded with increased pH values. All experimental materials brought about viral log reductions ranging between 0.5 and 4.0 over a period of 4 h. The material with the lowest pH was the most effective. The current work highlights the very important role of MgO in controlling pH profiles. This knowledge has been applied to the formulation of experimental alginates; where materials with pH values of approximately 4.2–4.4 are able to achieve a significant log reduction when assayed against HSV-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Gas Permeation Properties of Soluble Aromatic Polyimides Based on 4-Fluoro-4,4'-Diaminotriphenylmethane
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1951-1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041951
Received: 26 January 2015 / Revised: 26 March 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of new organic polyimides were synthesized from 4-fluoro-4'4"-diaminotriphenylmethane and four different aromatic dianhydrides through a one-step, high-temperature, direct polycondensation in m-cresol at 180–200 °C, resulting in the formation of high-molecular-weight polyimides (inherent viscosities ~ 1.0–1.3 dL/g). All the resulting polyimides exhibited
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A series of new organic polyimides were synthesized from 4-fluoro-4'4"-diaminotriphenylmethane and four different aromatic dianhydrides through a one-step, high-temperature, direct polycondensation in m-cresol at 180–200 °C, resulting in the formation of high-molecular-weight polyimides (inherent viscosities ~ 1.0–1.3 dL/g). All the resulting polyimides exhibited good thermal stability with initial decomposition temperatures above 434 °C, glass-transition temperatures between 285 and 316 °C, and good solubility in polar aprotic solvents. Wide-angle X-ray scattering data indicated that the polyimides were amorphous. Dense membranes were prepared by solution casting and solvent evaporation to evaluate their gas transport properties (permeability, diffusivity, and solubility coefficients) toward pure hydrogen, helium, oxygen, nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide gases. In general, the gas permeability was increased as both the fractional free volume and d-spacing were also increased. A good combination of permeability and selectivity was promoted efficiently by the bulky hexafluoroisopropylidene and 4-fluoro-phenyl groups introduced into the polyimides. The results indicate that the gas transport properties of these films depend on both the structure of the anhydride moiety, which controls the intrinsic intramolecular rigidity, and the 4-fluoro-phenyl pendant group, which disrupts the intermolecular packing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Flexural Behavior of HPFRCC Members with Inhomogeneous Material Properties
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1934-1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041934
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 10 April 2015 / Accepted: 13 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
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Abstract
In this paper, the flexural behavior of High-performance Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composite (HPFRCC) has been investigated, especially focusing on the localization of cracks, which significantly governs the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members. From four points bending tests with HPFRCC members, it was observed that
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In this paper, the flexural behavior of High-performance Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composite (HPFRCC) has been investigated, especially focusing on the localization of cracks, which significantly governs the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members. From four points bending tests with HPFRCC members, it was observed that almost evenly distributed cracks formed gradually, followed by a localized crack that determined the failure of the members. In order to investigate the effect of a localized crack on the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members, an analytical procedure has been developed with the consideration of intrinsic inhomogeneous material properties of HPFRCC such as cracking and ultimate tensile strengths. From the comparison, while the predictions with homogeneous material properties overestimated flexural strength and ductility of HPFRCC members, it was found that the analysis results considering localization effect with inhomogeneous material properties showed good agreement with the test results, not only the flexural strength and ductility but also the crack widths. The test results and the developed analysis procedure presented in this paper can be usefully applied for the prediction of flexural behaviors of HPFRCC members by considering the effect of localized cracking behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional Imaging of Dislocations in a Ti–35mass%Nb Alloy by Electron Tomography
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1924-1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041924
Received: 5 January 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 13 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We have studied three-dimensional (3D) configurations of dislocations in the β phase of a Ti–35mass%Nb alloy by means of single-axis tilt tomography using bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF-STEM). To visualize dislocations, the hh0 systematic reflections were excited throughout tilt-series acquisition with
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We have studied three-dimensional (3D) configurations of dislocations in the β phase of a Ti–35mass%Nb alloy by means of single-axis tilt tomography using bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF-STEM). To visualize dislocations, the hh0 systematic reflections were excited throughout tilt-series acquisition with the maximum tilt angle of 70°. Dislocations in the β grains were clearly reconstructed by the weighted back-projection algorithm. The slip planes of the dislocations were deduced by rotating the reconstructed volumes with the aid of selected area electron diffraction patterns. It was found that BF-STEM images with relatively low contrasts, taken along low-order zone axes, are capable to reproduce and preserve the quality of reconstructed image of dislocations. We also found that tilt angles as low as 40° are practically acceptable to visualize 3D configurations of dislocations, while there exists limitation in resolution due to the existence of a large missing wedge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Setup of Extruded Cementitious Hollow Tubes as Containing/Releasing Devices in Self-Healing Systems
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1897-1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041897
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 6 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this research is to produce self-healing cementitious composites based on the use of cylindrical capsules containing a repairing agent. Cementitious hollow tubes (CHT) having two different internal diameters (of 2 mm and 7.5 mm) were produced by extrusion and used
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The aim of this research is to produce self-healing cementitious composites based on the use of cylindrical capsules containing a repairing agent. Cementitious hollow tubes (CHT) having two different internal diameters (of 2 mm and 7.5 mm) were produced by extrusion and used as containers and releasing devices for cement paste/mortar healing agents. Based on the results of preliminary mechanical tests, sodium silicate was selected as the healing agent. The morphological features of several mix designs used to manufacture the extruded hollow tubes, as well as the coatings applied to increase the durability of both core and shell materials are discussed. Three-point bending tests were performed on samples produced with the addition of the above-mentioned cementitious hollow tubes to verify the self-healing effectiveness of the proposed solution. Promising results were achieved, in particular when tubes with a bigger diameter were used. In this case, a substantial strength and stiffness recovery was observed, even in specimens presenting large cracks (>1 mm). The method is inexpensive and simple to scale up; however, further research is needed in view of a final optimization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells: The Mechanical and Morphological Properties
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1871-1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041871
Received: 18 January 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 55 | PDF Full-text (3621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic
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It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited, primarily because of the challenge in fabricating porous biomaterials with arbitrarily complex morphological designs. In the present work, we studied the relationship between relative density (RD) of porous Ti6Al4V EFI alloy and five compressive properties of the material, namely elastic gradient or modulus (Es20–70), first maximum stress, plateau stress, yield stress, and energy absorption. Porous structures with different RD and six different unit cell configurations (cubic (C), diamond (D), truncated cube (TC), truncated cuboctahedron (TCO), rhombic dodecahedron (RD), and rhombicuboctahedron (RCO)) were fabricated using selective laser melting. Each of the compressive properties increased with increase in RD, the relationship being of a power law type. Clear trends were seen in the influence of unit cell configuration and porosity on each of the compressive properties. For example, in terms of Es20–70, the structures may be divided into two groups: those that are stiff (comprising those made using C, TC, TCO, and RCO unit cell) and those that are compliant (comprising those made using D and RD unit cell). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Biomaterials) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Different Surface Ligands on the Optical Properties of PbS Quantum Dot Solids
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1858-1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041858
Received: 12 February 2015 / Revised: 7 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The engineering of quantum dot solids with low defect concentrations and efficient carrier transport through a ligand strategy is crucial to achieve efficient quantum dot (QD) optoelectronic devices. Here, we study the consequences of various surface ligand treatments on the light emission properties
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The engineering of quantum dot solids with low defect concentrations and efficient carrier transport through a ligand strategy is crucial to achieve efficient quantum dot (QD) optoelectronic devices. Here, we study the consequences of various surface ligand treatments on the light emission properties of PbS quantum dot films using 1,3-benzenedithiol (1,3-BDT), 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT), mercaptocarboxylic acids (MPA) and ammonium sulfide ((NH4)2S). We first investigate the influence of different ligand treatments on the inter-dot separation, which mainly determines the conductivity of the QD films. Then, through a combination of photoluminescence and transient photoluminescence characterization, we demonstrate that the radiative and non-radiative recombination mechanisms in the quantum dot films depend critically on the length and chemical structure of the surface ligands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Collagen Fibrils in Skin Orient in the Direction of Applied Uniaxial Load in Proportion to Stress while Exhibiting Differential Strains around Hair Follicles
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1841-1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041841
Received: 4 March 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We determined inhomogeneity of strains around discontinuities as well as changes in orientation of collagen fibrils under applied load in skin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) images of collagen fibrils were obtained at different strain magnitudes. Changes in collagen orientation were analyzed using Fast
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We determined inhomogeneity of strains around discontinuities as well as changes in orientation of collagen fibrils under applied load in skin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) images of collagen fibrils were obtained at different strain magnitudes. Changes in collagen orientation were analyzed using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) while strain inhomogeneity was determined at different distances from hair follicles using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). A parameter, defined as the Collagen Orientation Index (COI), is introduced that accounts for the increasingly ellipsoidal nature of the FFT amplitude images upon loading. We show that the COI demonstrates two distinct mechanical regimes, one at low strains (0%, 2.5%, 5% strain) in which randomly oriented collagen fibrils align in the direction of applied deformation. In the second regime, beginning at 5% strain, collagen fibrils elongate in response to applied deformation. Furthermore, the COI is also found to be linearly correlated with the applied stress indicating that collagen fibrils orient to take the applied load. DIC results indicated that major principal strains were found to increase with increased load at all locations. In contrast, minimum principal strain was dependent on distance from hair follicles. These findings are significant because global and local changes in collagen deformations are expected to be changed by disease, and could affect stem cell populations surrounding hair follicles, including mesenchymal stem cells within the outer root sheath. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Biomaterials) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle The Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Zr-Based Metallic Glass under Different Strain Rate Compressions
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1831-1840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041831
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 23 March 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the high strain rate deformation behavior and the microstructure evolution of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses under various strain rates were investigated. The influence of strain and strain rate on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior, as well as microstructural properties was
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In this study, the high strain rate deformation behavior and the microstructure evolution of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses under various strain rates were investigated. The influence of strain and strain rate on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior, as well as microstructural properties was also investigated. Before mechanical testing, the structure and thermal stability of the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter. The mechanical property experiments and microstructural observations of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses under different strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 5.1 × 103 s−1 and at temperatures of 25 °C were investigated using compressive split-Hopkinson bar (SHPB) and an MTS tester. An in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) nanoindenter was used to carry out compression tests and investigate the deformation behavior arising at nanopillars of the Zr-based metallic glass. The formation and interaction of shear band during the plastic deformation were investigated. Moreover, it was clearly apparent that the mechanical strength and ductility could be enhanced by impeding the penetration of shear bands with reinforced particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICETI2014)
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Open AccessArticle Conductive Polymer Porous Film with Tunable Wettability and Adhesion
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1817-1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041817
Received: 7 January 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A conductive polymer porous film with tunable wettability and adhesion was fabricated by the chloroform solution of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyricacid-methyl-ester (PCBM) via the freeze drying method. The porous film could be obtained from the solution of 0.8 wt%, whose pore diameters ranged
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A conductive polymer porous film with tunable wettability and adhesion was fabricated by the chloroform solution of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyricacid-methyl-ester (PCBM) via the freeze drying method. The porous film could be obtained from the solution of 0.8 wt%, whose pore diameters ranged from 50 nm to 500 nm. The hydrophobic porous surface with a water contact angle (CA) of 144.7° could be transferred into a hydrophilic surface with CA of 25° by applying a voltage. The water adhesive force on the porous film increased with the increase of the external voltage. The electro-controllable wettability and adhesion of the porous film have potential application in manipulating liquid collection and transportation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Biomaterials) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Various Biomaterial Carriers
Materials 2015, 8(4), 1778-1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8041778
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 24 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trauma and disease frequently result in fractures or critical sized bone defects and their management at times necessitates bone grafting. The process of bone healing or regeneration involves intricate network of molecules including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). BMPs belong to a larger superfamily
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Trauma and disease frequently result in fractures or critical sized bone defects and their management at times necessitates bone grafting. The process of bone healing or regeneration involves intricate network of molecules including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). BMPs belong to a larger superfamily of proteins and are very promising and intensively studied for in the enhancement of bone healing. More than 20 types of BMPs have been identified but only a subset of BMPs can induce de novo bone formation. Many research groups have shown that BMPs can induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and stem cells into osteogenic cells which are capable of producing bone. This review introduces BMPs and discusses current advances in preclinical and clinical application of utilizing various biomaterial carriers for local delivery of BMPs to enhance bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials)
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