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Special Issue "Steels"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Richard Thackray

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: metallurgy; steels; electrical steels; steelmaking; continuous casting; solidification; inclusion engineering; sustainable manufacturing; life cycle analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

Steel is one of the most important engineering materials in the world, and plays an essential role in our everyday lives.

Over the past 25 years we have seen, and continue to see, a huge amount of research and development activity related to steel processing, products and applications. For example, the development of advanced high strength steels with improved toughness and strength, the introduction of novel techniques for making and refining steel, improvements in rolling and forging operations, advances in coatings technologies, and in strategies that are being trialled and adopted by the industry in order to reduce the environmental impact of steel production.

The main focus of the forthcoming Steels issue is to present an overview of some of these developments from the viewpoint of both industry and academia. Advances in steelmaking, casting, alloy design and microstructural optimisation, process modeling, rolling and finishing, and joining technologies will be presented, in addition to examples of the use of modern steels in applications such as packaging, construction, transport, and energy and power generation. With a global recovery rate of 70%, steel is the most recycled metal in the world, and aspects regarding the recycling, life cycle assessment and sustainability of steel will also be addressed.

It is my great pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Richard Thackray
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • alloy design
  • mechanical properties
  • applications—construction, automotive, energy
  • steelmaking
  • rolling and forging
  • casting
  • recycling and sustainability
  • joining

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Electrochemical Investigation of the Corrosion of Different Microstructural Phases of X65 Pipeline Steel under Saturated Carbon Dioxide Conditions
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2635-2649; doi:10.3390/ma8052635
Received: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 14 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of metallurgy on the corrosion behaviour of separate weld zone (WZ) and parent plate (PP) regions of X65 pipeline steel in a solution of deionised water saturated with CO2, at two
[...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of metallurgy on the corrosion behaviour of separate weld zone (WZ) and parent plate (PP) regions of X65 pipeline steel in a solution of deionised water saturated with CO2, at two different temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) and at initial pH~4.0. In addition, a non-electrochemical immersion experiment was also performed at 80 °C in CO2, on a sample portion of X65 pipeline containing part of a weld section, together with adjacent heat affected zones (HAZ) and parent material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of the separate weld and parent plate samples. This study seeks to understand the significance of the different microstructures within the different zones of the welded X65 pipe in CO2 environments on corrosion performance; with particular attention given to the formation of surface scales; and their composition/significance. The results obtained from grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements suggest that, post immersion, the parent plate substrate is scale free, with only features arising from ferrite (α-Fe) and cementite (Fe3C) apparent. In contrast, at 80 °C, GIXRD from the weld zone substrate, and weld zone/heat affected zone of the non-electrochemical sample indicates the presence of siderite (FeCO3) and chukanovite (Fe2CO3(OH)2) phases. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) on this surface confirmed the presence of characteristic discrete cube-shaped crystallites of siderite together with plate-like clusters of chukanovite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steels)
Open AccessArticle Microstructural Study of 17-4PH Stainless Steel after Plasma-Transferred Arc Welding
Materials 2015, 8(2), 424-434; doi:10.3390/ma8020424
Received: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 19 January 2015 / Published: 29 January 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The improvement of the surface qualities and surface hardening of precipitation hardened martensitic stainless steel 17-4PH was achieved by the plasma-transferred arc welding (PTAW) process deposited with Co-based alloy. The microstructure of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal were characterized by
[...] Read more.
The improvement of the surface qualities and surface hardening of precipitation hardened martensitic stainless steel 17-4PH was achieved by the plasma-transferred arc welding (PTAW) process deposited with Co-based alloy. The microstructure of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal were characterized by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that there are obvious microstructural differences between the base metal and HAZ. For example, base material is transformed from lath martensite to austenite due to the heateffect of the welding process. On the other hand, the precipitate in the matrix (bar-like shape Cr7C3 phase with a width of about one hundred nanometres and a length of hundreds of nanometres) grows to a rectangular appearance with a width of about two hundred nanometres and a length of about one micron. Stacking fault could also be observed in the Cr7C3 after PTAW. The above means that welding can obviously improve the surface qualities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steels)
Open AccessArticle Process-time Optimization of Vacuum Degassing Using a Genetic Alloy Design Approach
Materials 2014, 7(12), 7997-8011; doi:10.3390/ma7127997
Received: 29 September 2014 / Revised: 23 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper demonstrates the use of a new model consisting of a genetic algorithm in combination with thermodynamic calculations and analytical process models to minimize the processing time during a vacuum degassing treatment of liquid steel. The model sets multiple simultaneous targets for
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This paper demonstrates the use of a new model consisting of a genetic algorithm in combination with thermodynamic calculations and analytical process models to minimize the processing time during a vacuum degassing treatment of liquid steel. The model sets multiple simultaneous targets for final S, N, O, Si and Al levels and uses the total slag mass, the slag composition, the steel composition and the start temperature as optimization variables. The predicted optimal conditions agree well with industrial practice. For those conditions leading to the shortest process time the target compositions for S, N and O are reached almost simultaneously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steels)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Intercritical Annealing Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Fe-7.9Mn-0.14Si-0.05Al-0.07C Steel
Materials 2014, 7(12), 7891-7906; doi:10.3390/ma7127891
Received: 7 September 2014 / Revised: 27 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A medium Mn steel has been designed to achieve an excellent combination of strength and ductility based on the TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) concept for automotive applications. Following six passes of hot rolling at 850 °C, the Fe-7.9Mn-0.14Si-0.05Al-0.07C (wt.%) steel was warm-rolled at
[...] Read more.
A medium Mn steel has been designed to achieve an excellent combination of strength and ductility based on the TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) concept for automotive applications. Following six passes of hot rolling at 850 °C, the Fe-7.9Mn-0.14Si-0.05Al-0.07C (wt.%) steel was warm-rolled at 630 °C for seven passes and subsequently air cooled to room temperature. The sample was subsequently intercritically annealed at various temperatures for 30 min to promote the reverse transformation of martensite into austenite. The obtained results show that the highest volume fraction of austenite is 39% for the sample annealed at 600 °C. This specimen exhibits a yield stress of 910 MPa and a high ultimate tensile stress of 1600 MPa, with an elongation-to-failure of 0.29 at a strain rate of 1 × 10−3/s. The enhanced work-hardening ability of the investigated steel is closely related to martensitic transformation and the interaction of dislocations. Especially, the alternate arrangement of acicular ferrite (soft phase) and ultrafine austenite lamellae (50–200 nm, strong and ductile phase) is the key factor contributing to the excellent combination of strength and ductility. On the other hand, the as-warm-rolled sample also exhibits the excellent combination of strength and ductility, with elongation-to-failure much higher than those annealed at temperatures above 630 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steels)

Review

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Open AccessReview The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steels
Materials 2015, 8(2), 751-783; doi:10.3390/ma8020751
Received: 19 December 2014 / Revised: 6 February 2015 / Accepted: 11 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non‑metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic
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Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non‑metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc.) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steels)

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