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Mar. Drugs, Volume 13, Issue 9 (September 2015), Pages 5508-6018

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Marine Compounds and Cancer: Where Do We Stand?
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5657-5665; doi:10.3390/md13095657
Received: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Western countries, cancer is among the most frequent causes of death. Despite striking advances in cancer therapy, there is still an urgent need for new drugs in oncology. Current development favors so called “targeted agents” or drugs that target the immune system,
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In Western countries, cancer is among the most frequent causes of death. Despite striking advances in cancer therapy, there is still an urgent need for new drugs in oncology. Current development favors so called “targeted agents” or drugs that target the immune system, i.e., therapeutic antibodies that enhance or facilitate an immune response against tumor cells (also referred to as “checkpoint inhibitors”). However, until recently, roughly 60% of drugs used in hematology and oncology were originally derived from natural sources, and one third of the top-selling agents are either natural agents or derivatives [1]. There is justified hope for the discovery and development of new anticancer agents from the marine environment. Historically, this habitat has proven to be a rich source of potent natural compounds such as alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, macrolides, peptides, and polyketides, among others. Interestingly, marine agents and cancer treatment have had a special relationship from the beginning. One of the first marine-derived compounds, discovered in 1945 that was later developed into a clinically used drug, was spongothymidine [2–4], which was the lead compound for the discovery of cytarabine [5]. Until today, cytarabine remains one of the most widely used agents in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and relapsed aggressive lymphomas. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer) Printed Edition available

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Astaxanthin Improves Human Sperm Capacitation by Inducing Lyn Displacement and Activation
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5533-5551; doi:10.3390/md13095533
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 8 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Astaxanthin (Asta), a photo-protective red pigment of the carotenoid family, is known for its multiple beneficial properties. In this study, the effects of Asta on isolated human sperm were evaluated. Capacitation involves a series of transformations to let sperm acquire the correct features
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Astaxanthin (Asta), a photo-protective red pigment of the carotenoid family, is known for its multiple beneficial properties. In this study, the effects of Asta on isolated human sperm were evaluated. Capacitation involves a series of transformations to let sperm acquire the correct features for potential oocyte fertilization, including the generation of a controlled amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cholesterol depletion of the sperm outer membrane, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P) process in the head region. Volunteers, with normal spermiogram values, were divided in two separate groups on the basis of their ability to generate the correct content of endogenous ROS. Both patient group (PG) and control group (CG) were analysed for Tyr-phosphorylation (Tyr-P) pattern and percentages of acrosome-reacted cells (ARC) and non-viable cells (NVC), in the presence or absence of Asta. In addition, the involvement of ROS on membrane reorganization and the presence of Lyn, a Src family kinase associated with lipid rafts, were investigated. Results show that Lyn is present in the membranes of human sperm, mainly confined in midpiece in resting conditions. Following capacitation, Lyn translocated to the head concomitantly with raft relocation, thus allowing the Tyr-P of head proteins. Asta succeeded to trigger Lyn translocation in PG sperm thus bypassing the impaired ROS-related mechanism for rafts and Lyn translocation. In this study, we showed an interdependence between ROS generation and lipid rafts and Lyn relocation leading the cells to undergo the successive acrosome reaction (AR). Asta, by ameliorating PG sperm functioning, may be utilised to decrease male idiopathic infertility. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sphingosines Derived from Marine Sponge as Potential Multi-Target Drug Related to Disorders in Cancer Development
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5552-5563; doi:10.3390/md13095552
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 14 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Haliclona tubifera, marine sponge species abundant in Brazilian coastline, presents only a few papers published in the literature. Recently, we have reported the isolation of two modified C18 sphingoid bases: (2R,3R,6R,7Z)-2-aminooctadec-7-ene-1,3, 6-triol and and
[...] Read more.
Haliclona tubifera, marine sponge species abundant in Brazilian coastline, presents only a few papers published in the literature. Recently, we have reported the isolation of two modified C18 sphingoid bases: (2R,3R,6R,7Z)-2-aminooctadec-7-ene-1,3, 6-triol and and (2R,3R,6R)-2-aminooctadec-1,3,6-triol. In order to continue our research, in this work aimed at the biological investigation of fractions that led to the isolation of these compounds. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of marine sponge H. tubifera fractions in glioma (U87) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) human cell lines. In addition, considering the link between cancer, imbalance of reactive oxygen species and coagulation disorders, we also investigated the in vitro effects on blood coagulation and their redox properties. We showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction, rich in sphingoid bases, had important cytotoxic effects in both cancer cell lines with an IC50 < 15 μg/mL and also can inhibit the production of peroxyl radicals. Interestingly, this fraction increased the recalcification time of human blood, showing anticoagulant properties. The present study indicates the sphingosines fraction as a promising source of chemical prototypes, especially multifunctional drugs in cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Interaction between Marine-Derived n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Uric Acid on Glucose Metabolism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5564-5578; doi:10.3390/md13095564
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
PDF Full-text (1056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in
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The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in control group and 268 T2DM subjects in case group were included. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids and biochemical parameters were detected by standard methods. Plasma PL C22:6n-3 was significantly lower in case group than in control group, and was negatively correlated with fasting glucose (r = −0.177, p < 0.001). Higher plasma PL C22:6n-3 was associated with lower risk of T2DM, and the OR was 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12 to 0.80; p = 0.016) for per unit increase of C22:6n-3. UA was significantly lower in case group than in control group. UA was positively correlated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, but this correlation became negative in T2DM subjects. A significant interaction was observed between C22:6n-3 and UA on fasting glucose (p for interaction = 0.005): the lowering effect of C22:6n-3 was only significant in subjects with a lower level of UA. In conclusion, C22:6n-3 interacts with UA to modulate glucose metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle New Furan and Cyclopentenone Derivatives from the Sponge-Associated Fungus Hypocrea Koningii PF04
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5579-5592; doi:10.3390/md13095579
Received: 19 June 2015 / Revised: 14 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new furan derivatives, hypofurans A and B (1 and 2), and three new cyclopentenone derivatives, hypocrenones A–C (35), along with seven known compounds (612), were isolated from a marine fungus Hypocrea
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Two new furan derivatives, hypofurans A and B (1 and 2), and three new cyclopentenone derivatives, hypocrenones A–C (35), along with seven known compounds (612), were isolated from a marine fungus Hypocrea koningii PF04 associated with the sponge Phakellia fusca. Among them, compounds 10 and 11 were obtained for the first time as natural products. The planar structures of compounds 15 were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Meanwhile, the absolute configuration of 1 was determined as 2R,3R by the comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. All the isolates were evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Compounds 1, 10, and 12 all showed modest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 (MIC, 32 μg/mL). In addition, compounds 1, 10 and 11 exhibited moderate DPPH radical scavenging capacity with IC50 values of 27.4, 16.8, and 61.7 µg/mL, respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle Micrometam C Protects against Oxidative Stress in Inflammation Models in Zebrafish and RAW264.7 Macrophages
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5593-5605; doi:10.3390/md13095593
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micrometam C is a core of novel marine compound isolated from the mangrove associates Micromelum falcatum. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of micrometam C in inflammation models in the transgenic zebrafish line Tg (corola: eGFP) and RAW264.7 macrophages. We found
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Micrometam C is a core of novel marine compound isolated from the mangrove associates Micromelum falcatum. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of micrometam C in inflammation models in the transgenic zebrafish line Tg (corola: eGFP) and RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that micrometam C significantly suppressed the migration of immune cells in tail-cutting-induced inflammation in transgenic zebrafish and reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both zebrafish and macrophages. In addition, micrometam C also restored LPS-induced reduction of endogenous antioxidants, such as catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The protective effects of micrometam C were in parallel to its inhibition of NADPH oxidase and nuclear factor-kappa-binding (NF-κB) activity. Thus, the present results demonstrate that micrometam C protects against LPS-induced inflammation possibly through its antioxidant property. Full article
Open AccessArticle Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France): An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5606-5628; doi:10.3390/md13095606
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta) and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta) from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were
[...] Read more.
Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta) and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta) from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37%) and glycolipids (38%), whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. In both studied algae, the phospholipids were composed of PUFA for 18%. In addition, PUFA were shown to represent 9% and 4.5% of glycolipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The essential PUFA were 16:4n-3, 18:4n-3, 18:2n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:6n-3 in U. armoricana, and 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in S. chordalis. It is important to notice that six 2-hydroxy-, three 3-hydroxy-, and two monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acids were also identified and may provide a chemotaxonomic basis for algae. These seaweeds contained interesting compounds such as squalene, α-tocopherol, cholest-4-en-3-one and phytosterols. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6) with an IC50 of 23 μg/mL for monogalactosyldiacylglycerols isolated from S. chordalis and 24 μg/mL for digalactosyldiacylglycerols from U. armoricana. These results confirm the potentialities of valorization of these two species in the fields of health, nutrition and chemotaxonomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Inducing the Nucleotide Excision Repair System in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5629-5641; doi:10.3390/md13095629
Received: 8 July 2015 / Revised: 26 August 2015 / Accepted: 26 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1106 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the protective properties of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), a phlorotannin, against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) system is the pathway by which cells identify and repair bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions such
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We investigated the protective properties of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), a phlorotannin, against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) system is the pathway by which cells identify and repair bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced CPDs and 6-4 photoproducts. CPDs levels were elevated in UVB-exposed cells; however, this increase was reduced by DPHC. Expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), which are essential components of the NER pathway, were induced in DPHC-treated cells. Expression of XPC and ERCC1 were reduced following UVB exposure, whereas DPHC treatment partially restored the levels of both proteins. DPHC also increased expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) and sirtuin 1, an up-regulator of XPC, in UVB-exposed cells. DPHC restored binding of the SP1 to the XPC promoter, which is reduced in UVB-exposed cells. These results indicate that DPHC can protect cells against UVB-induced DNA damage by inducing the NER system. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Nitrate, Ammonium and Urea on Growth and Pinnatoxin G Production of Vulcanodinium rugosum
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5642-5656; doi:10.3390/md13095642
Received: 9 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described dinoflagellate species producing a potent neurotoxin (pinnatoxin G), has been identified in French Mediterranean lagoons and was responsible for recurrent episodes of shellfish toxicity detected by mouse bioassay. Until now, the biology and physiology of V. rugosum
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Vulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described dinoflagellate species producing a potent neurotoxin (pinnatoxin G), has been identified in French Mediterranean lagoons and was responsible for recurrent episodes of shellfish toxicity detected by mouse bioassay. Until now, the biology and physiology of V. rugosum have not been fully investigated. We studied the growth characteristics and toxicity of a V. rugosum strain (IFR-VRU-01), isolated in the Ingril lagoon in June 2009 (North-Western French Mediterranean Sea). It was cultivated in Enriched Natural Sea Water (ENSW) with organic (urea) and inorganic (ammonium and nitrate) nitrogen, at a temperature of 25 °C and irradiance of 100 μmol/m2·s−1. Results showed that ammonium was assimilated by cells more rapidly than nitrate and urea. V. rugosum is thus an osmotrophic species using urea. Consequently, this nitrogen form could contribute to the growth of this dinoflagellate species in the natural environment. There was no significant difference (Anova, p = 0.856) between the growth rate of V. rugosum cultivated with ammonium (0.28 ± 0.11 day−1), urea (0.26 ± 0.08 day−1) and nitrate (0.24 ± 0.01 day−1). However, the production of chlorophyll a and pinnatoxin G was significantly lower with urea as a nitrogen source (Anova, p < 0.027), suggesting that nutritional conditions prevailing at the moment of the bloom could determine the cellular toxicity of V. rugosum and therefore the toxicity measured in contaminated mollusks. The relatively low growth rate (≤0.28 day−1) and the capacity of this species to continuously produce temporary cysts could explain why cell densities of this species in the water column are typically low (≤20,000 cells/L). Full article
Open AccessArticle γ-Lindane Increases Microcystin Synthesis in Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5666-5680; doi:10.3390/md13095666
Received: 2 July 2015 / Revised: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 3 September 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (635 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
HCH factories, and the waste dumpsites associated to its production, have become a global environmental concern, and their runoff could pollute ground and surface waters with high levels of the pollutant. In this study, the influence of lindane (γ-HCH) on microcystin production has
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HCH factories, and the waste dumpsites associated to its production, have become a global environmental concern, and their runoff could pollute ground and surface waters with high levels of the pollutant. In this study, the influence of lindane (γ-HCH) on microcystin production has been investigated in Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806. This toxic cyanobacterium is highly tolerant to γ-lindane (20 mg/L), and produces more toxin (microcystin) in the presence of the pollutant. Microcystis degrades γ-lindane and presence of γ-lindane induces genes involved in its own degradation (nirA). RT-PCRsq has been used to monitor changes in levels of transcripts encoded by the mcy operon (mcyD, mcyH and mcyJ), responsible for the microcystin synthesis machinery, as well as other genes involved in its transcriptional regulation, such as ntcA and fur family members. The presence of lindane in the culture media induces mcyD expression, as well as ntcA gene transcription, while other genes, such as mcyH, (putative ABC transporter), are downregulated. The amount of microcystin found in the cells and the culture media is higher when M. aeruginosa is treated with γ-lindane than in control cells. The results suggest that in a lindane polluted environment, Microcystis toxic strains may enhance their microcystin synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compounds from Cyanobacteria)
Open AccessArticle Thermo-Acidic Pretreatment of Beach Macroalgae from Rügen to Optimize Biomethane Production—Double Benefit with Simultaneous Bioenergy Production and Improvement of Local Beach and Waste Management
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5681-5705; doi:10.3390/md13095681
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 20 August 2015 / Accepted: 21 August 2015 / Published: 3 September 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eutrophication is a phenomenon which can rapidly generate masses of marine macroalgae, particularly in areas with high nutrient pollution. Washed ashore, this biomass impairs coastal tourism and negatively affects the coastal ecosystem. The present study evaluates the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of a
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Eutrophication is a phenomenon which can rapidly generate masses of marine macroalgae, particularly in areas with high nutrient pollution. Washed ashore, this biomass impairs coastal tourism and negatively affects the coastal ecosystem. The present study evaluates the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of a macroalgae mix (Rügen-Mix, RM (RM = Rügen-Mix)) originating from Rügen, Germany. To improve biomethane recovery, thermo-acidic pretreatment was applied to the biomass prior to biomethanation to disintegrate the biomass macrostructure. Acid hydrolysis was successfully triggered with 0.2 M industry-grade HCl at 80 °C for a 2 h period, increasing biomethane recovery by +39%, with a maximum BMP of 121 mL·g−1 volatile solids (VS). To reduce the necessity for input material, HCl was replaced by the acidic waste product flue gas condensate (FGC). Improved performance was achieved by showing an increase in biomethane recovery of +24% and a maximum BMP of 108 mL·g−1 VS. Continuous anaerobic digestion trials of RM were conducted for three hydraulic retention times, showing the feasibility of monodigestion. The biomethane recovery was 60 mL and 65 mL·g−1 VS·d−1 for thermophilic and mesophilic operation, respectively. The quality of biomethanation performance aligned to the composition of the source material which exhibited a low carbon/nitrogen ratio and an increased concentration of sulfur compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Chemistry Approach to Marine Products)
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Open AccessArticle A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5706-5721; doi:10.3390/md13095706
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 24 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (930 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect
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Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessCommunication Echinochrome A Improves Exercise Capacity during Short-Term Endurance Training in Rats
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5722-5731; doi:10.3390/md13095722
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 9 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (892 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Echinochrome A (Echi A) improves mitochondrial function in the heart; however, its effects on skeletal muscle are still unclear. We hypothesized that Echi A administration during short-term exercise may improve exercise capacity. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following groups:
[...] Read more.
Echinochrome A (Echi A) improves mitochondrial function in the heart; however, its effects on skeletal muscle are still unclear. We hypothesized that Echi A administration during short-term exercise may improve exercise capacity. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control group (CG), Echi A-treated group (EG), aerobic exercise group (AG), and aerobic exercise treated with Echi A group (AEG) (n = 6 per group). Echi A was administered intra-peritoneally (0.1 mg/kg of Echi A in 300 µL phosphate-buffered saline) daily 30 min before each exercise training. The AG and AEG groups performed treadmill running (20 m/min, 60 min/day) five days/week for two weeks. The exercise capacity was significantly higher in the AG and AEG groups compared to other groups. Interestingly, the exercise capacity increased more effectively in the AEG group. The body weight in the EG tended to be slightly lower than that in the other groups. There were no significant changes in the plasma lipids among the groups. However, the gastrocnemius muscle mitochondria content was greater in the EG and AEG groups. These findings show that Echi A administration after short-term endurance training enhances exercise capacity, which was associated with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development and Application of a Novel SPE-Method for Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Marine Extracts
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5736-5749; doi:10.3390/md13095736
Received: 16 June 2015 / Revised: 15 August 2015 / Accepted: 28 August 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The biological diversity of marine habitats is a unique source of chemical compounds with potential use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and dietary supplements. However, biological screening and chemical analysis of marine extracts pose specific technical constraints and require adequate sample preparation. Here we report
[...] Read more.
The biological diversity of marine habitats is a unique source of chemical compounds with potential use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and dietary supplements. However, biological screening and chemical analysis of marine extracts pose specific technical constraints and require adequate sample preparation. Here we report an improved method on Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) to fractionate organic extracts containing high concentration of salt that hampers the recovery of secondary metabolites. The procedure uses a water suspension to load the extracts on a poly(styrene-divynylbenzene)-based support and a stepwise organic solvent elution to effectively desalt and fractionate the organic components. The novel protocol has been tested on MeOH-soluble material from three model organisms (Reniera sarai, Dendrilla membranosa and Amphidinium carterae) and was validated on a small panel of 47 marine samples, including sponges and protists, within discovery programs for identification of immuno-stimulatory and anti-infective natural products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Lipid Hydroperoxides in Marine Diatoms by the FOX2 Assay
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5767-5783; doi:10.3390/md13095767
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 2 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ecologically-relevant marine diatoms produce a plethora of bioactive oxylipins deriving from fatty acid oxidation, including aldehydes, hydroxy-fatty acids, epoxy-hydroxy-fatty acids, and oxo-acids. These secondary metabolites have been related to the negative effect of diatoms on copepod reproduction, causing low hatching success and teratogenesis
[...] Read more.
Ecologically-relevant marine diatoms produce a plethora of bioactive oxylipins deriving from fatty acid oxidation, including aldehydes, hydroxy-fatty acids, epoxy-hydroxy-fatty acids, and oxo-acids. These secondary metabolites have been related to the negative effect of diatoms on copepod reproduction, causing low hatching success and teratogenesis in the offspring during periods of intense diatom blooms. The common intermediates in the formation of oxylipins are fatty acid hydroperoxides. The quantitative measurement of these intermediates can fundamentally contribute to understanding the function and role of lipoxygenase metabolites in diatom-copepod interactions. Here, we describe the successful adaptation of the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange 2 (FOX2) assay to diatom samples, which showed several advantages over other spectrophotometric and polarographic methods tested in the present work. Using this method we assessed fatty acid hydroperoxide levels in three diatom species: Skeletonema marinoi, Thalassiosira rotula, and Chaetoceros affinis, and discuss results in light of the literature data on their detrimental effects on copepod reproduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Evaluation of Analogues Based on the Tricyclic Core of Thiaplakortones A–D
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5784-5795; doi:10.3390/md13095784
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 4 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Six regioisomers associated with the tricyclic core of thiaplakortones A–D have been synthesized. Reaction of 1H-indole-4,7-dione and 1-tosyl-1H-indole-4,7-dione with 2-aminoethanesulfinic acid afforded a regioisomeric series, which was subsequently deprotected and oxidized to yield the tricyclic core scaffolds present in
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Six regioisomers associated with the tricyclic core of thiaplakortones A–D have been synthesized. Reaction of 1H-indole-4,7-dione and 1-tosyl-1H-indole-4,7-dione with 2-aminoethanesulfinic acid afforded a regioisomeric series, which was subsequently deprotected and oxidized to yield the tricyclic core scaffolds present in the thiaplakortones. All compounds were fully characterized using NMR and MS data. A single crystal X-ray structure was obtained on one of the N-tosyl derivatives. All compounds were screened for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and multidrug-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum parasite lines. Several analogues displayed potent inhibition of P. falciparum growth (IC50 < 500 nM) but only moderate selectivity for P. falciparum versus human neonatal foreskin fibroblast cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Nitrogen-Containing Diterpenoids, Sesquiterpenoids, and Nor-Diterpenoids from Cespitularia taeniata
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5796-5814; doi:10.3390/md13095796
Received: 13 August 2015 / Revised: 7 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new nitrogen-containing verticillene diterpenoids, cespilamides A and B (1 and 2), three new nitrogen-containing sesquiterpenoids, cespilamides C–E (35), and five new norverticillene and verticillene diterpenoids, cespitaenins A–E (610), were isolated from the
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Two new nitrogen-containing verticillene diterpenoids, cespilamides A and B (1 and 2), three new nitrogen-containing sesquiterpenoids, cespilamides C–E (35), and five new norverticillene and verticillene diterpenoids, cespitaenins A–E (610), were isolated from the Taiwanese soft coral Cespitularia taeniata. Compound 1 possesses an unusual oxazo ring system at C-10 while compound 2 displays an unprecedented C–C bond cleavage between C-10 and C-11 with an N-ethylphenyl group at C-10. Biogenetic pathways of 1 and 2 are proposed. The absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed by Mosher’s method and molecular mechanics calculations (MM2). The cytotoxicities of compounds 110 were evaluated against a small panel of human cancer cell lines. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Pimarane Diterpene and Cytotoxic Angucyclines from a Marine-Derived Micromonospora sp. in Vietnam’s East Sea
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5815-5827; doi:10.3390/md13095815
Received: 4 August 2015 / Revised: 2 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A screening of our actinomycete fraction library against the NCI-60 SKOV3 human tumor cell line led to the isolation of isopimara-2-one-3-ol-8,15-diene (1), lagumycin B (2), dehydrorabelomycin (3), phenanthroviridone (4), and WS-5995 A (5).
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A screening of our actinomycete fraction library against the NCI-60 SKOV3 human tumor cell line led to the isolation of isopimara-2-one-3-ol-8,15-diene (1), lagumycin B (2), dehydrorabelomycin (3), phenanthroviridone (4), and WS-5995 A (5). These secondary metabolites were produced by a Micromonospora sp. isolated from sediment collected off the Cát Bà peninsula in the East Sea of Vietnam. Compound 1 is a novel Δ8,9-pimarane diterpene, representing one of approximately 20 actinomycete-produced diterpenes reported to date, while compound 2 is an angucycline antibiotic that has yet to receive formal characterization. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by combined NMR and MS analysis and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by analysis of NOESY NMR and CD spectroscopic data. Compounds 25 exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity against a panel of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. Overall, this study highlights our collaborative efforts to discover novel biologically active molecules from the large, underexplored, and biodiversity-rich waters of Vietnam’s East Sea. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Alginate-Derived Oligosaccharide Inhibits Neuroinflammation and Promotes Microglial Phagocytosis of β-Amyloid
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5828-5846; doi:10.3390/md13095828
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 21 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Alginate from marine brown algae has been widely applied in biotechnology. In this work, the effects of alginate-derived oligosaccharide (AdO) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation and microglial phagocytosis of Aβ were studied. We found that pretreatment of BV2 microglia with AdO prior to
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Alginate from marine brown algae has been widely applied in biotechnology. In this work, the effects of alginate-derived oligosaccharide (AdO) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation and microglial phagocytosis of Aβ were studied. We found that pretreatment of BV2 microglia with AdO prior to LPS/Aβ stimulation led to a significant inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. We further demonstrated that AdO remarkably attenuated the LPS-activated overexpression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB in BV2 cells. In addition to the impressive inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation, we also found that AdO promoted the phagocytosis of Aβ through its interaction with TLR4 in microglia. Our results suggested that AdO exerted the inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation and the promotion effect on microglial phagocytosis, indicating its potential as a nutraceutical or therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Polysaccharide Constituents of Three Types of Sea Urchin Shells and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5882-5900; doi:10.3390/md13095882
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 2 September 2015 / Accepted: 2 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
As a source of potent anti-inflammatory traditional medicines, the quantitative chromatographic fingerprints of sea urchin shell polysaccharides were well established via pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Based on the quantitative results, the content of fucose and glucose could be used
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As a source of potent anti-inflammatory traditional medicines, the quantitative chromatographic fingerprints of sea urchin shell polysaccharides were well established via pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Based on the quantitative results, the content of fucose and glucose could be used as preliminary distinguishing indicators among three sea urchin shell species. Besides, the anti-inflammatory activities of the polysaccharides from sea urchin shells and their gonads were also determined. The gonad polysaccharide of Anthocidaris crassispina showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity among all samples tested. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Physical Stability Studies of Semi-Solid Formulations from Natural Compounds Loaded with Chitosan Microspheres
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5901-5919; doi:10.3390/md13095901
Received: 5 August 2015 / Revised: 8 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A chitosan-based hydrophilic system containing an olive leaf extract was designed and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated. Encapsulation of olive leaf extract in chitosan microspheres was carried out by a spray-drying process. The particles obtained with this technique were found to be spherical
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A chitosan-based hydrophilic system containing an olive leaf extract was designed and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated. Encapsulation of olive leaf extract in chitosan microspheres was carried out by a spray-drying process. The particles obtained with this technique were found to be spherical and had a positive surface charge, which is an indicator of mucoadhesiveness. FTIR and X-ray diffraction results showed that there are not specific interactions of polyphenolic compounds in olive leaf extract with the chitosan matrix. Stability and release studies of chitosan microspheres loaded with olive leaf extract before and after the incorporation into a moisturizer base were performed. The resulting data showed that the developed formulations were stable up to three months. The encapsulation efficiency was around 44% and the release properties of polyphenols from the microspheres were found to be pH dependent. At pH 7.4, polyphenols release was complete after 6 h; whereas the amount of polyphenols released was 40% after the same time at pH 5.5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017)
Open AccessArticle Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5947-5975; doi:10.3390/md13095947
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 21 August 2015 / Accepted: 28 August 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2108 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study,
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The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Chemistry Approach to Marine Products)
Open AccessArticle Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5976-5992; doi:10.3390/md13095976
Received: 2 August 2015 / Revised: 11 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations
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Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017)
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Open AccessReview Carotenoids from Haloarchaea and Their Potential in Biotechnology
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5508-5532; doi:10.3390/md13095508
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 2 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is
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The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is relatively quick, easy and cheap; (iii) carotenoids production by haloarchaea can be improved by genetic modification or even by modifying several cultivation aspects such as nutrition, growth pH, temperature, etc.; (iv) carotenoids are needed to support plant and animal life and human well-being; and (v) carotenoids are compounds highly demanded by pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. Several studies about carotenoid production by haloarchaea have been reported so far, most of them focused on pigments isolation or carotenoids production under different culture conditions. However, the understanding of carotenoid metabolism, regulation, and roles of carotenoid derivatives in this group of extreme microorganisms remains mostly unrevealed. The uses of those haloarchaeal pigments have also been poorly explored. This work summarises what has been described so far about carotenoids production by haloarchaea and their potential uses in biotechnology and biomedicine. In particular, new scientific evidence of improved carotenoid production by one of the better known haloarchaeon (Haloferax mediterranei) is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessReview Astaxanthin as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent for Neurological Diseases
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5750-5766; doi:10.3390/md13095750
Received: 6 June 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neurological diseases, which consist of acute injuries and chronic neurodegeneration, are the leading causes of human death and disability. However, the pathophysiology of these diseases have not been fully elucidated, and effective treatments are still lacking. Astaxanthin, a member of the xanthophyll group,
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Neurological diseases, which consist of acute injuries and chronic neurodegeneration, are the leading causes of human death and disability. However, the pathophysiology of these diseases have not been fully elucidated, and effective treatments are still lacking. Astaxanthin, a member of the xanthophyll group, is a red-orange carotenoid with unique cell membrane actions and diverse biological activities. More importantly, there is evidence demonstrating that astaxanthin confers neuroprotective effects in experimental models of acute injuries, chronic neurodegenerative disorders, and neurological diseases. The beneficial effects of astaxanthin are linked to its oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic characteristics. In this review, we will focus on the neuroprotective properties of astaxanthin and explore the underlying mechanisms in the setting of neurological diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Their Application in Neurological Disorders)
Open AccessReview Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5847-5881; doi:10.3390/md13095847
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (2377 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which
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Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessReview Therapies from Fucoidan: An Update
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5920-5946; doi:10.3390/md13095920
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 2 September 2015 / Accepted: 6 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fucoidans are a class of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides found in brown marine algae and echinoderms. Fucoidans have an attractive array of bioactivities and potential applications including immune modulation, cancer inhibition, and pathogen inhibition. Research into fucoidan has continued to gain pace over the
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Fucoidans are a class of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides found in brown marine algae and echinoderms. Fucoidans have an attractive array of bioactivities and potential applications including immune modulation, cancer inhibition, and pathogen inhibition. Research into fucoidan has continued to gain pace over the last few years and point towards potential therapeutic or adjunct roles. The source, extraction, characterization and detection of fucoidan is discussed. Full article
Open AccessReview Diatom-Specific Oligosaccharide and Polysaccharide Structures Help to Unravel Biosynthetic Capabilities in Diatoms
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5993-6018; doi:10.3390/md13095993
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 10 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diatoms are marine organisms that represent one of the most important sources of biomass in the ocean, accounting for about 40% of marine primary production, and in the biosphere, contributing up to 20% of global CO2 fixation. There has been a recent
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Diatoms are marine organisms that represent one of the most important sources of biomass in the ocean, accounting for about 40% of marine primary production, and in the biosphere, contributing up to 20% of global CO2 fixation. There has been a recent surge in developing the use of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds in the food and cosmetic industries. In addition, the potential of diatoms such as Phaeodactylum tricornutum as cell factories for the production of biopharmaceuticals is currently under evaluation. These biotechnological applications require a comprehensive understanding of the sugar biosynthesis pathways that operate in diatoms. Here, we review diatom glycan and polysaccharide structures, thus revealing their sugar biosynthesis capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)

Other

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Open AccessCorrection Dolch, L.-J. and Maréchal, E. Inventory of Fatty Acid Desaturases in the Pennate Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 1317–1339
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5732-5735; doi:10.3390/md13095732
Received: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 9 September 2015
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Abstract
We have found eight inadvertent errors in our paper published in Mar. Drugs [1]. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
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