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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5828-5846; doi:10.3390/md13095828

Alginate-Derived Oligosaccharide Inhibits Neuroinflammation and Promotes Microglial Phagocytosis of β-Amyloid

1
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresources and Ecology, Collage of Life Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
2
College of Life Science, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Microbial Genetic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Laurienzo
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 21 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Polysaccharides)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2977 KB, uploaded 16 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Alginate from marine brown algae has been widely applied in biotechnology. In this work, the effects of alginate-derived oligosaccharide (AdO) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation and microglial phagocytosis of Aβ were studied. We found that pretreatment of BV2 microglia with AdO prior to LPS/Aβ stimulation led to a significant inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. We further demonstrated that AdO remarkably attenuated the LPS-activated overexpression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB in BV2 cells. In addition to the impressive inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation, we also found that AdO promoted the phagocytosis of Aβ through its interaction with TLR4 in microglia. Our results suggested that AdO exerted the inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation and the promotion effect on microglial phagocytosis, indicating its potential as a nutraceutical or therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer’s disease (AD). View Full-Text
Keywords: alginate; β-amyloid; microglia; neuroinflammation; phagocytosis; toll-like receptor 4 alginate; β-amyloid; microglia; neuroinflammation; phagocytosis; toll-like receptor 4
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, R.; Shi, X.-Y.; Bi, D.-C.; Fang, W.-S.; Wei, G.-B.; Xu, X. Alginate-Derived Oligosaccharide Inhibits Neuroinflammation and Promotes Microglial Phagocytosis of β-Amyloid. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 5828-5846.

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