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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5642-5656; doi:10.3390/md13095642

Effect of Nitrate, Ammonium and Urea on Growth and Pinnatoxin G Production of Vulcanodinium rugosum

1
Laboratoire Environnement Ressources du Languedoc Roussillon, Center for Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation (MARBEC), Ifremer, Sète Cedex 3 CS30171, France
2
ODE/UL/PHYC, Ifremer, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, Nantes Cedex 3 BP 21105 44311, France
3
Center for Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation (MARBEC), Université de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, Place Eugène Bataillon, CC93, Montpellier Cedex 5 34095, France
4
UMR 5244, Interaction Hotes Pathogenes Environnement (IHPE), Ifremer, Université de Perpignan, Université de Montpellier, Place Eugène Bataillon, CC80, Montpellier Cedex F-34095, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Received: 9 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
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Abstract

Vulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described dinoflagellate species producing a potent neurotoxin (pinnatoxin G), has been identified in French Mediterranean lagoons and was responsible for recurrent episodes of shellfish toxicity detected by mouse bioassay. Until now, the biology and physiology of V. rugosum have not been fully investigated. We studied the growth characteristics and toxicity of a V. rugosum strain (IFR-VRU-01), isolated in the Ingril lagoon in June 2009 (North-Western French Mediterranean Sea). It was cultivated in Enriched Natural Sea Water (ENSW) with organic (urea) and inorganic (ammonium and nitrate) nitrogen, at a temperature of 25 °C and irradiance of 100 μmol/m2·s−1. Results showed that ammonium was assimilated by cells more rapidly than nitrate and urea. V. rugosum is thus an osmotrophic species using urea. Consequently, this nitrogen form could contribute to the growth of this dinoflagellate species in the natural environment. There was no significant difference (Anova, p = 0.856) between the growth rate of V. rugosum cultivated with ammonium (0.28 ± 0.11 day−1), urea (0.26 ± 0.08 day−1) and nitrate (0.24 ± 0.01 day−1). However, the production of chlorophyll a and pinnatoxin G was significantly lower with urea as a nitrogen source (Anova, p < 0.027), suggesting that nutritional conditions prevailing at the moment of the bloom could determine the cellular toxicity of V. rugosum and therefore the toxicity measured in contaminated mollusks. The relatively low growth rate (≤0.28 day−1) and the capacity of this species to continuously produce temporary cysts could explain why cell densities of this species in the water column are typically low (≤20,000 cells/L). View Full-Text
Keywords: Vulcanodinium rugosum; pinnatoxin G; Ingril lagoon; growth; nitrogen source Vulcanodinium rugosum; pinnatoxin G; Ingril lagoon; growth; nitrogen source
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Abadie, E.; Kaci, L.; Berteaux, T.; Hess, P.; Sechet, V.; Masseret, E.; Rolland, J.L.; Laabir, M. Effect of Nitrate, Ammonium and Urea on Growth and Pinnatoxin G Production of Vulcanodinium rugosum. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 5642-5656.

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