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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5750-5766; doi:10.3390/md13095750

Astaxanthin as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent for Neurological Diseases

1
Department of Neurosurgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016, China
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009, China
3
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92350, USA.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: George Perry
Received: 6 June 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Their Application in Neurological Disorders)
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Abstract

Neurological diseases, which consist of acute injuries and chronic neurodegeneration, are the leading causes of human death and disability. However, the pathophysiology of these diseases have not been fully elucidated, and effective treatments are still lacking. Astaxanthin, a member of the xanthophyll group, is a red-orange carotenoid with unique cell membrane actions and diverse biological activities. More importantly, there is evidence demonstrating that astaxanthin confers neuroprotective effects in experimental models of acute injuries, chronic neurodegenerative disorders, and neurological diseases. The beneficial effects of astaxanthin are linked to its oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic characteristics. In this review, we will focus on the neuroprotective properties of astaxanthin and explore the underlying mechanisms in the setting of neurological diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: astaxanthin; oxidative stress; inflammation; apoptosis; neuroprotection; neurological diseases astaxanthin; oxidative stress; inflammation; apoptosis; neuroprotection; neurological diseases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, H.; Niu, H.; Shao, A.; Wu, C.; Dixon, B.J.; Zhang, J.; Yang, S.; Wang, Y. Astaxanthin as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent for Neurological Diseases. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 5750-5766.

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