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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5722-5731; doi:10.3390/md13095722

Echinochrome A Improves Exercise Capacity during Short-Term Endurance Training in Rats

1
National Research Laboratory for Mitochondrial Signaling, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Inje University, Bokji-ro 75, Busanjin, Busan 633-165, Korea
2
Division of Sports and Health Science, Kyungsung University, 309 Suyoung-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 608-736, Korea
3
George B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian, Academy of Science, Prospect 100 let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peer B. Jacobson
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 9 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
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Abstract

Echinochrome A (Echi A) improves mitochondrial function in the heart; however, its effects on skeletal muscle are still unclear. We hypothesized that Echi A administration during short-term exercise may improve exercise capacity. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control group (CG), Echi A-treated group (EG), aerobic exercise group (AG), and aerobic exercise treated with Echi A group (AEG) (n = 6 per group). Echi A was administered intra-peritoneally (0.1 mg/kg of Echi A in 300 µL phosphate-buffered saline) daily 30 min before each exercise training. The AG and AEG groups performed treadmill running (20 m/min, 60 min/day) five days/week for two weeks. The exercise capacity was significantly higher in the AG and AEG groups compared to other groups. Interestingly, the exercise capacity increased more effectively in the AEG group. The body weight in the EG tended to be slightly lower than that in the other groups. There were no significant changes in the plasma lipids among the groups. However, the gastrocnemius muscle mitochondria content was greater in the EG and AEG groups. These findings show that Echi A administration after short-term endurance training enhances exercise capacity, which was associated with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content. View Full-Text
Keywords: aerobic exercise; Echinochrome A; skeletal muscle; mitochondrial function aerobic exercise; Echinochrome A; skeletal muscle; mitochondrial function
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Seo, D.Y.; McGregor, R.A.; Noh, S.J.; Choi, S.J.; Mishchenko, N.P.; Fedoreyev, S.A.; Stonik, V.A.; Han, J. Echinochrome A Improves Exercise Capacity during Short-Term Endurance Training in Rats. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 5722-5731.

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