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Sensors, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2009), Pages 8382-9443

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Pathogen Sensors
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8610-8612; doi:10.3390/s91108610
Received: 19 October 2009 / Accepted: 21 October 2009 / Published: 28 October 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (21 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant
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The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant and soil pathogens, microbial communities, and the environment. The range of technologies that currently flood the sensor market encompass PCR and microarray-based methods, an assortment of optical sensors (including bioluminescence and fluorescence), in addition to biosensor-based approaches that include piezoelectric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric sensors to name a few. More recently, nanosensors have come into limelight, as a more sensitive and portable alternative, with some commercial success. However, key issues affecting the sensor community is the lack of standardization of the testing protocols and portability, among other desirable elements, which include timeliness, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, sensitivity and specificity. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogen Sensors)
Open AccessEditorial Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8824-8830; doi:10.3390/s91108824
Received: 20 October 2009 / Revised: 31 October 2009 / Accepted: 2 November 2009 / Published: 4 November 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (36 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent years have witnessed tremendous advances in the design and applications of wirelessly networked and embedded sensors. Wireless sensor nodes are typically low-cost, low-power, small devices equipped with limited sensing, data processing and wireless communication capabilities, as well as power supplies. They leverage
[...] Read more.
Recent years have witnessed tremendous advances in the design and applications of wirelessly networked and embedded sensors. Wireless sensor nodes are typically low-cost, low-power, small devices equipped with limited sensing, data processing and wireless communication capabilities, as well as power supplies. They leverage the concept of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in which a large (possibly huge) number of collaborative sensor nodes could be deployed. As an outcome of the convergence of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology, wireless communications, and digital electronics, WSNs represent a significant improvement over traditional sensors. In fact, the rapid evolution of WSN technology has accelerated the development and deployment of various novel types of wireless sensors, e.g., multimedia sensors. Fulfilling Moore’s law, wireless sensors are becoming smaller and cheaper, and at the same time more powerful and ubiquitous. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications)
Open AccessEditorial Editorial: Nanotechnological Advances in Biosensors
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8907-8910; doi:10.3390/s91108907
Received: 18 September 2009 / Accepted: 9 November 2009 / Published: 9 November 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (28 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A biosensor is a physicochemical or hybrid physical-chemical-biological device that detects a biological molecule, organism, or process. Because of the nature of their targets, biosensors need to be faster, smaller, more sensitive, and more specific than nearly all of their physicochemical counterparts or
[...] Read more.
A biosensor is a physicochemical or hybrid physical-chemical-biological device that detects a biological molecule, organism, or process. Because of the nature of their targets, biosensors need to be faster, smaller, more sensitive, and more specific than nearly all of their physicochemical counterparts or the traditional methods that they are designed to replace. Speed is of the essence in medical diagnosis as it permits for rapid, accurate treatment and does not allow patients to be lost to follow-up. Small size and greater sensitivity mean less-invasive sampling and detection of molecules such as neurotransmitters or hormones at biologically-relevant levels. Greater specificity allows assays to be performed in complex fluids such as blood or urine without false negative or false positive results. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnological Advances in Biosensors)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8382-8390; doi:10.3390/s91108382
Received: 3 July 2009 / Revised: 22 September 2009 / Accepted: 29 September 2009 / Published: 26 October 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (342 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the
[...] Read more.
We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window (λ ≳ 1100 nm) of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because the silicon absorbs strongly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle A Galvanic Sensor for Monitoring the Corrosion Condition of the Concrete Reinforcing Steel: Relationship Between the Galvanic and the Corrosion Currents
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8391-8398; doi:10.3390/s91108391
Received: 27 August 2009 / Revised: 24 September 2009 / Accepted: 16 October 2009 / Published: 26 October 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (332 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work reports a study carried out on the design and performance of galvanic and polarization resistance sensors to be embedded in concrete systems for permanent monitoring of the corrosion condition of reinforcing steel, aiming to establish a correlation between the galvanic currents,
[...] Read more.
This work reports a study carried out on the design and performance of galvanic and polarization resistance sensors to be embedded in concrete systems for permanent monitoring of the corrosion condition of reinforcing steel, aiming to establish a correlation between the galvanic currents, Igal, and the corrosion currents, Icorr, estimated from the polarization resistance, Rp. Sensors have been tested in saturated Ca(OH)2 aqueous solutions, under a variety of conditions, simulating the most important parameters that can accelerate the corrosion of concrete reinforcing steel, such as carbonation, ingress of chloride ions, presence or absence of O2. For all the conditions, the influence of temperature (20 to 55 ºC) has also been considered. From this study, it could be concluded that the galvanic currents are sensitive to the various parameters following a trend similar to that of the Rp values. A relationship between the galvanic and the corrosion current densities was obtained and the limiting values of the Igal, indicative of the state condition of the reinforcing steel for the designed sensor, were established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Adaptive Sensing Based on Profiles for Sensor Systems
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8422-8437; doi:10.3390/s91108422
Received: 1 September 2009 / Revised: 10 October 2009 / Accepted: 19 October 2009 / Published: 26 October 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a profile-based sensing framework for adaptive sensor systems based on models that relate possibly heterogeneous sensor data and profiles generated by the models to detect events. With these concepts, three phases for building the sensor systems are extracted from two
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This paper proposes a profile-based sensing framework for adaptive sensor systems based on models that relate possibly heterogeneous sensor data and profiles generated by the models to detect events. With these concepts, three phases for building the sensor systems are extracted from two examples: a combustion control sensor system for an automobile engine, and a sensor system for home security. The three phases are: modeling, profiling, and managing trade-offs. Designing and building a sensor system involves mapping the signals to a model to achieve a given mission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Morphometry-Based Protocol of Automated Video-Image Analysis for Species Recognition and Activity Rhythms Monitoring in Deep-Sea Fauna
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8438-8455; doi:10.3390/s91108438
Received: 25 August 2009 / Revised: 1 October 2009 / Accepted: 13 October 2009 / Published: 26 October 2009
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (2029 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The understanding of ecosystem dynamics in deep-sea areas is to date limited by technical constraints on sampling repetition. We have elaborated a morphometry-based protocol for automated video-image analysis where animal movement tracking (by frame subtraction) is accompanied by species identification from animals’ outlines
[...] Read more.
The understanding of ecosystem dynamics in deep-sea areas is to date limited by technical constraints on sampling repetition. We have elaborated a morphometry-based protocol for automated video-image analysis where animal movement tracking (by frame subtraction) is accompanied by species identification from animals’ outlines by Fourier Descriptors and Standard K-Nearest Neighbours methods. One-week footage from a permanent video-station located at 1,100 m depth in Sagami Bay (Central Japan) was analysed. Out of 150,000 frames (1 per 4 s), a subset of 10.000 was analyzed by a trained operator to increase the efficiency of the automated procedure. Error estimation of the automated and trained operator procedure was computed as a measure of protocol performance. Three displacing species were identified as the most recurrent: Zoarcid fishes (eelpouts), red crabs (Paralomis multispina), and snails (Buccinum soyomaruae). Species identification with KNN thresholding produced better results in automated motion detection. Results were discussed assuming that the technological bottleneck is to date deeply conditioning the exploration of the deep-sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Best Sensor Configuration and Accommodation Rule Based on Navigation Performance for INS with Seven Inertial Sensors
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8456-8472; doi:10.3390/s91108456
Received: 5 August 2009 / Revised: 25 September 2009 / Accepted: 15 October 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper considers the best sensor configuration and fault accommodation problem for inertial navigation systems which use seven inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. We prove that when six inertial sensors are used, the isolation of a double fault cannot be achieved
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This paper considers the best sensor configuration and fault accommodation problem for inertial navigation systems which use seven inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. We prove that when six inertial sensors are used, the isolation of a double fault cannot be achieved for some combinations of fault magnitudes, whereas when seven inertial sensors are used, the isolation of any double fault can be achieved. There are many configurations which provide the minimum position errors. This paper proposes four configurations which show the best navigation performance and compares their FDI performances. Considering the FDI performance and the complexity of the accommodation rule, we choose one sensor configuration and provide accommodation rules for double faults. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed to show that the accommodation rules work well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Rigorous Temperature-Dependent Stochastic Modelling and Testing for MEMS-Based Inertial Sensor Errors
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8473-8489; doi:10.3390/s91108473
Received: 6 August 2009 / Revised: 12 September 2009 / Accepted: 12 October 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1085 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we examine the effect of changing the temperature points on MEMS-based inertial sensor random error. We collect static data under different temperature points using a MEMS-based inertial sensor mounted inside a thermal chamber. Rigorous stochastic models, namely Autoregressive-based Gauss-Markov (AR-based
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we examine the effect of changing the temperature points on MEMS-based inertial sensor random error. We collect static data under different temperature points using a MEMS-based inertial sensor mounted inside a thermal chamber. Rigorous stochastic models, namely Autoregressive-based Gauss-Markov (AR-based GM) models are developed to describe the random error behaviour. The proposed AR-based GM model is initially applied to short stationary inertial data to develop the stochastic model parameters (correlation times). It is shown that the stochastic model parameters of a MEMS-based inertial unit, namely the ADIS16364, are temperature dependent. In addition, field kinematic test data collected at about 17 °C are used to test the performance of the stochastic models at different temperature points in the filtering stage using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). It is shown that the stochastic model developed at 20 °C provides a more accurate inertial navigation solution than the ones obtained from the stochastic models developed at −40 °C, −20 °C, 0 °C, +40 °C, and +60 °C. The temperature dependence of the stochastic model is significant and should be considered at all times to obtain optimal navigation solution for MEMS-based INS/GPS integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering - 2009)
Open AccessArticle Acoustic Sensor Network for Relative Positioning of Nodes
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8490-8507; doi:10.3390/s91108490
Received: 17 August 2009 / Revised: 21 September 2009 / Accepted: 15 October 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, an acoustic sensor network for a relative localization system is analyzed by reporting the accuracy achieved in the position estimation. The proposed system has been designed for those applications where objects are not restricted to a particular environment and thus
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In this work, an acoustic sensor network for a relative localization system is analyzed by reporting the accuracy achieved in the position estimation. The proposed system has been designed for those applications where objects are not restricted to a particular environment and thus one cannot depend on any external infrastructure to compute their positions. The objects are capable of computing spatial relations among themselves using only acoustic emissions as a ranging mechanism. The object positions are computed by a multidimensional scaling (MDS) technique and, afterwards, a least-square algorithm, based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), is applied to refine results. Regarding the position estimation, all the parameters involved in the computation of the temporary relations with the proposed ranging mechanism have been considered. The obtained results show that a fine-grained localization can be achieved considering a Gaussian distribution error in the proposed ranging mechanism. Furthermore, since acoustic sensors require a line-of-sight to properly work, the system has been tested by modeling the lost of this line-of-sight as a non-Gaussian error. A suitable position estimation has been achieved even if it is considered a bias of up to 25 of the line-of-sight measurements among a set of nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessArticle Classifying Human Leg Motions with Uniaxial Piezoelectric Gyroscopes
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8508-8546; doi:10.3390/s91108508
Received: 10 August 2009 / Revised: 21 September 2009 / Accepted: 28 September 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (2075 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides a comparative study on the different techniques of classifying human leg motions that are performed using two low-cost uniaxial piezoelectric gyroscopes worn on the leg. A number of feature sets, extracted from the raw inertial sensor data in different ways,
[...] Read more.
This paper provides a comparative study on the different techniques of classifying human leg motions that are performed using two low-cost uniaxial piezoelectric gyroscopes worn on the leg. A number of feature sets, extracted from the raw inertial sensor data in different ways, are used in the classification process. The classification techniques implemented and compared in this study are: Bayesian decision making (BDM), a rule-based algorithm (RBA) or decision tree, least-squares method (LSM), k-nearest neighbor algorithm (k-NN), dynamic time warping (DTW), support vector machines (SVM), and artificial neural networks (ANN). A performance comparison of these classification techniques is provided in terms of their correct differentiation rates, confusion matrices, computational cost, and training and storage requirements. Three different cross-validation techniques are employed to validate the classifiers. The results indicate that BDM, in general, results in the highest correct classification rate with relatively small computational cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motion Detectors)
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Open AccessArticle Multiple Fan-Beam Optical Tomography: Modelling Techniques
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8562-8578; doi:10.3390/s91108562
Received: 16 July 2009 / Revised: 14 September 2009 / Accepted: 15 September 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (788 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper explains in detail the solution to the forward and inverse problem faced in this research. In the forward problem section, the projection geometry and the sensor modelling are discussed. The dimensions, distributions and arrangements of the optical fibre sensors are determined
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This paper explains in detail the solution to the forward and inverse problem faced in this research. In the forward problem section, the projection geometry and the sensor modelling are discussed. The dimensions, distributions and arrangements of the optical fibre sensors are determined based on the real hardware constructed and these are explained in the projection geometry section. The general idea in sensor modelling is to simulate an artificial environment, but with similar system properties, to predict the actual sensor values for various flow models in the hardware system. The sensitivity maps produced from the solution of the forward problems are important in reconstructing the tomographic image. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Sensor Location Design for Reliable Fault Detection in Presence of False Alarms
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8579-8592; doi:10.3390/s91108579
Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised: 24 August 2009 / Accepted: 29 September 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To improve fault detection reliability, sensor location should be designed according to an optimization criterion with constraints imposed by issues of detectability and identifiability. Reliability requires the minimization of undetectability and false alarm probability due to random factors on sensor readings, which is
[...] Read more.
To improve fault detection reliability, sensor location should be designed according to an optimization criterion with constraints imposed by issues of detectability and identifiability. Reliability requires the minimization of undetectability and false alarm probability due to random factors on sensor readings, which is not only related with sensor readings but also affected by fault propagation. This paper introduces the reliability criteria expression based on the missed/false alarm probability of each sensor and system topology or connectivity derived from the directed graph. The algorithm for the optimization problem is presented as a heuristic procedure. Finally, a boiler system is illustrated using the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
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Open AccessArticle Distributed Environment Control Using Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks for Lighting Applications
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8593-8609; doi:10.3390/s91108593
Received: 14 September 2009 / Revised: 22 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 28 October 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose a decentralized algorithm to calculate the control signals for lights in wireless sensor/actuator networks. This algorithm uses an appropriate step size in the iterative process used for quickly computing the control signals. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this approach
[...] Read more.
We propose a decentralized algorithm to calculate the control signals for lights in wireless sensor/actuator networks. This algorithm uses an appropriate step size in the iterative process used for quickly computing the control signals. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this approach compared with the penalty method by using Mote-based mesh sensor networks. The estimation error of the new approach is one-eighth as large as that of the penalty method with one-fifth of its computation time. In addition, we describe our sensor/actuator node for distributed lighting control based on the decentralized algorithm and demonstrate its practical efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
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Open AccessArticle Investigations of Bread Production with Postponed Staling Applying Instrumental Measurements of Bread Crumb Color
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8613-8623; doi:10.3390/s91108613
Received: 12 August 2009 / Revised: 10 September 2009 / Accepted: 10 October 2009 / Published: 28 October 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crumb color quality characteristics of bread of different compositions (whole grain, rye, barley and diet bread) at 24 hours intervals during three days after bread preparation were investigated by means of a MOM-color 100 tristimulus photo colorimeter, in CIE, CIELab, ANLAB and Hunter
[...] Read more.
Crumb color quality characteristics of bread of different compositions (whole grain, rye, barley and diet bread) at 24 hours intervals during three days after bread preparation were investigated by means of a MOM-color 100 tristimulus photo colorimeter, in CIE, CIELab, ANLAB and Hunter systems. The highest value of average reflectance y (%) was found for barley bread (immediately after preparation), so that can be said that this sample was “conditionally” the lightest. The lowest values of y (%) were found for diet bread, so that it can be considered as the “conditionally” the darkest product. Colors of all investigated bread samples were lighter after three days of keeping compared to day 0. Changes of average reflectance of bread samples packed in polyethylene packaging with keeping time can be described by linear equation (correlation coefficient 0.99). The dominant wavelength of barley and diet bread confirm the presence of yellow pigment. Color qualities of the mentioned kinds of bread depend on processes during bread staling and raw material composition of bread (flour). Color quality measurements can be used as easy auxiliary method for screening in the development of slower staling bread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle High Sensitivity Electrochemical Cholesterol Sensor Utilizing a Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Electrode with Electropolymerized Enzyme Immobilization
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8658-8668; doi:10.3390/s91108658
Received: 14 July 2009 / Revised: 30 September 2009 / Accepted: 10 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this report, a new cholesterol sensor is developed based on a vertically aligned CNT electrode with two-step electrochemical polymerized enzyme immobilization. Vertically aligned CNTs are selectively grown on a 1 mm2 window of gold coated SiO2/Si substrate by thermal
[...] Read more.
In this report, a new cholesterol sensor is developed based on a vertically aligned CNT electrode with two-step electrochemical polymerized enzyme immobilization. Vertically aligned CNTs are selectively grown on a 1 mm2 window of gold coated SiO2/Si substrate by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with gravity effect and water-assisted etching. CNTs are then simultaneously functionalized and enzyme immobilized by electrochemical polymerization of polyaniline and cholesterol enzymes. Subsequently, ineffective enzymes are removed and new enzymes are electrochemically recharged. Scanning electron microscopic characterization indicates polymer-enzyme nanoparticle coating on CNT surface. Cyclic voltammogram (CV) measurements in cholesterol solution show the oxidation and reduction peaks centered around 450 and −220 mV, respectively. An approximately linear relationship between the cholesterol concentration and the response current could be observed in the concentration range of 50–300 mg/dl with a sensitivity of approximately 0.22 μA/mg·dl−1, which is considerably higher compared to previously reported CNT bioprobe. In addition, good specificity toward glucose, uric acid acetaminophen and ascorbic acid have been obtained. Moreover, sensors have satisfactory stability, repeatability and life time. Therefore, the electropolymerized CNT bioprobe is promising for cholesterol detection in normal cholesterol concentration in human blood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Remote Sensing Images Using Multifractal Analysis
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8669-8683; doi:10.3390/s91108669
Received: 3 August 2009 / Revised: 10 October 2009 / Accepted: 21 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Satellite remote sensing (RS) is an important contributor to Earth observation, providing various kinds of imagery every day, but low spatial resolution remains a critical bottleneck in a lot of applications, restricting higher spatial resolution analysis (e.g., intraurban). In this study, a multifractal-based
[...] Read more.
Satellite remote sensing (RS) is an important contributor to Earth observation, providing various kinds of imagery every day, but low spatial resolution remains a critical bottleneck in a lot of applications, restricting higher spatial resolution analysis (e.g., intraurban). In this study, a multifractal-based super-resolution reconstruction method is proposed to alleviate this problem. The multifractal characteristic is common in Nature. The self-similarity or self-affinity presented in the image is useful to estimate details at larger and smaller scales than the original. We first look for the presence of multifractal characteristics in the images. Then we estimate parameters of the information transfer function and noise of the low resolution image. Finally, a noise-free, spatial resolutionenhanced image is generated by a fractal coding-based denoising and downscaling method. The empirical case shows that the reconstructed super-resolution image performs well indetail enhancement. This method is not only useful for remote sensing in investigating Earth, but also for other images with multifractal characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle A Topology Reorganization Scheme for Reliable Communication in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Affected by Shadow Zones
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8684-8708; doi:10.3390/s91108684
Received: 31 August 2009 / Revised: 8 October 2009 / Accepted: 19 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effective solutions should be devised to handle the effects of shadow zones in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). An adaptive topology reorganization scheme that maintains connectivity in multi-hop UWSNs affected by shadow zones has been developed in the context of two Spanish-funded research
[...] Read more.
Effective solutions should be devised to handle the effects of shadow zones in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). An adaptive topology reorganization scheme that maintains connectivity in multi-hop UWSNs affected by shadow zones has been developed in the context of two Spanish-funded research projects. A mathematical model has been proposed to find the optimal location for sensors with two objectives: the minimization of the transmission loss and the maintenance of network connectivity. The theoretical analysis and the numerical evaluations reveal that our scheme reduces the transmission loss under all propagation phenomena scenarios for all water depths in UWSNs and improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessArticle The Detection of Alkaline Phosphatase Using an Electrochemical Biosensor in a Single-Step Approach
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8709-8721; doi:10.3390/s91108709
Received: 22 September 2009 / Revised: 15 October 2009 / Accepted: 16 October 2009 / Published: 30 October 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A one-step, single use, disposable Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) biosensor has been developed. It is based on the detection of phenol produced by an ALP enzymatic reaction. It can operate at 25 °C in a pH 10 medium. It measures ALP of 0–300 IU/L.
[...] Read more.
A one-step, single use, disposable Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) biosensor has been developed. It is based on the detection of phenol produced by an ALP enzymatic reaction. It can operate at 25 °C in a pH 10 medium. It measures ALP of 0–300 IU/L. The permissible concentrations of glucose, ascorbic acid and urea without interference are 10 mM/L, 5 mg/L and 400 mg/L, respectively. Experimental results are compared to those obtained by spectrophotometric measurements in bovine serum. Excellent linearity between the biosensor outputs and the ALP concentrations exists. The agreement between the measurements of this biosensor and the spectrophotometer is also outstanding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Wireless Sensor Network Deployment for Rural and Forest Fire Detection and Verification
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8722-8747; doi:10.3390/s91108722
Received: 29 September 2009 / Revised: 15 October 2009 / Accepted: 20 October 2009 / Published: 30 October 2009
Cited by 95 | PDF Full-text (2286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Forest and rural fires are one of the main causes of environmental degradation in Mediterranean countries. Existing fire detection systems only focus on detection, but not on the verification of the fire. However, almost all of them are just simulations, and very few
[...] Read more.
Forest and rural fires are one of the main causes of environmental degradation in Mediterranean countries. Existing fire detection systems only focus on detection, but not on the verification of the fire. However, almost all of them are just simulations, and very few implementations can be found. Besides, the systems in the literature lack scalability. In this paper we show all the steps followed to perform the design, research and development of a wireless multisensor network which mixes sensors with IP cameras in a wireless network in order to detect and verify fire in rural and forest areas of Spain. We have studied how many cameras, sensors and access points are needed to cover a rural or forest area, and the scalability of the system. We have developed a multisensor and when it detects a fire, it sends a sensor alarm through the wireless network to a central server. The central server selects the closest wireless cameras to the multisensor, based on a software application, which are rotated to the sensor that raised the alarm, and sends them a message in order to receive real-time images from the zone. The camera lets the fire fighters corroborate the existence of a fire and avoid false alarms. In this paper, we show the test performance given by a test bench formed by four wireless IP cameras in several situations and the energy consumed when they are transmitting. Moreover, we study the energy consumed by each device when the system is set up. The wireless sensor network could be connected to Internet through a gateway and the images of the cameras could be seen from any part of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Wireless Micro Pressure Sensor Using the CMOS Process
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8748-8760; doi:10.3390/s91108748
Received: 30 July 2009 / Revised: 19 October 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 30 October 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (973 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we fabricated a wireless micro FET (field effect transistor) pressure sensor based on the commercial CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process and a post-process. The wireless micro pressure sensor is composed of a FET pressure sensor, an oscillator, an amplifier
[...] Read more.
In this study, we fabricated a wireless micro FET (field effect transistor) pressure sensor based on the commercial CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process and a post-process. The wireless micro pressure sensor is composed of a FET pressure sensor, an oscillator, an amplifier and an antenna. The oscillator is adopted to generate an ac signal, and the amplifier is used to amplify the sensing signal of the pressure sensor. The antenna is utilized to transmit the output voltage of the pressure sensor to a receiver. The pressure sensor is constructed by 16 sensing cells in parallel. Each sensing cell contains an MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) and a suspended membrane, which the gate of the MOS is the suspended membrane. The postprocess employs etchants to etch the sacrificial layers in the pressure sensor for releasing the suspended membranes, and a LPCVD (low pressure chemical vapor deposition) parylene is adopted to seal the etch holes in the pressure. Experimental results show that the pressure sensor has a sensitivity of 0.08 mV/kPa in the pressure range of 0–500 kPa and a wireless transmission distance of 10 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering - 2009)
Open AccessArticle Vehicle Lateral State Estimation Based on Measured Tyre Forces
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8761-8775; doi:10.3390/s91108761
Received: 16 September 2009 / Revised: 14 October 2009 / Accepted: 21 October 2009 / Published: 30 October 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre
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Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements. Full article
Open AccessArticle Feedback Power Control Strategies inWireless Sensor Networks with Joint Channel Decoding
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8776-8809; doi:10.3390/s91108776
Received: 15 October 2009 / Revised: 22 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 3 November 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we derive feedback power control strategies for block-faded multiple access schemes with correlated sources and joint channel decoding (JCD). In particular, upon the derivation of the feasible signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region for the considered multiple access schemes, i.e., the multidimensional
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In this paper, we derive feedback power control strategies for block-faded multiple access schemes with correlated sources and joint channel decoding (JCD). In particular, upon the derivation of the feasible signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region for the considered multiple access schemes, i.e., the multidimensional SNR region where error-free communications are, in principle, possible, two feedback power control strategies are proposed: (i) a classical feedback power control strategy, which aims at equalizing all link SNRs at the access point (AP), and (ii) an innovative optimized feedback power control strategy, which tries to make the network operational point fall in the feasible SNR region at the lowest overall transmit energy consumption. These strategies will be referred to as “balanced SNR” and “unbalanced SNR,” respectively. While they require, in principle, an unlimited power control range at the sources, we also propose practical versions with a limited power control range. We preliminary consider a scenario with orthogonal links and ideal feedback. Then, we analyze the robustness of the proposed power control strategies to possible non-idealities, in terms of residual multiple access interference and noisy feedback channels. Finally, we successfully apply the proposed feedback power control strategies to a limiting case of the class of considered multiple access schemes, namely a central estimating officer (CEO) scenario, where the sensors observe noisy versions of a common binary information sequence and the AP’s goal is to estimate this sequence by properly fusing the soft-output information output by the JCD algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Sensor for High Speed, High Precision Measurement of 2-D Positions
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8810-8823; doi:10.3390/s91108810
Received: 28 August 2009 / Revised: 21 September 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 3 November 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A sensor system to measure the 2-D position of an object that intercepts a plane in space is presented in this paper. This sensor system was developed with the aim of measuring the height and lateral position of contact wires supplying power to
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A sensor system to measure the 2-D position of an object that intercepts a plane in space is presented in this paper. This sensor system was developed with the aim of measuring the height and lateral position of contact wires supplying power to electric locomotives. The sensor comprises two line-scans focused on the zone to be measured and positioned in such a way that their viewing planes are on the same plane. The report includes a mathematical model of the sensor system, and details the method used for calibrating the sensor system. The procedure used for high speed measurement of object position in space is also described, where measurement acquisition time was less than 0.7 ms. Finally, position measurement results verifying system performance in real time are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Ferromagnetic Mass Localization in Check Point Configuration Using a Levenberg Marquardt Algorithm
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8852-8862; doi:10.3390/s91108852
Received: 25 August 2009 / Revised: 30 September 2009 / Accepted: 10 October 2009 / Published: 4 November 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A detection and tracking algorithm for ferromagnetic objects based on a two stage Levenberg Marquardt Algorithm (LMA) is presented. The procedure is applied to localization and magnetic moment estimation of ferromagnetic objects moving in the vicinity of an array of two to four
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A detection and tracking algorithm for ferromagnetic objects based on a two stage Levenberg Marquardt Algorithm (LMA) is presented. The procedure is applied to localization and magnetic moment estimation of ferromagnetic objects moving in the vicinity of an array of two to four 3-axis magnetometers arranged as a check point configuration. The algorithms first stage provides an estimation of the target trajectory and moment that are further refined using a second iteration where only the position vector is taken as unknown. The whole procedure is fast enough to provide satisfactory results within a few seconds after the target has been detected. Tests were conducted in Soreq NRC assessing various check point scenarios and targets. The results obtained from this experiment show good localization performance and good convivial with “noisy” environment. Small targets can be localized with good accuracy using either a vertical “doorway” two to four sensors configuration or ground level two to four sensors configuration. The calculated trajectory was not affected by nearby magnetic interference such as moving vehicles or a combat soldier inspecting the gateway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Asphalted Road Temperature Variations Due to Wind Turbine Cast Shadows
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8863-8883; doi:10.3390/s91108863
Received: 6 July 2009 / Revised: 9 October 2009 / Accepted: 31 October 2009 / Published: 5 November 2009
PDF Full-text (847 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The contribution of this paper is a technique that in certain circumstances allows one to avoid the removal of dynamic shadows in the visible spectrum making use of images in the infrared spectrum. This technique emerged from a real problem concerning the autonomous
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The contribution of this paper is a technique that in certain circumstances allows one to avoid the removal of dynamic shadows in the visible spectrum making use of images in the infrared spectrum. This technique emerged from a real problem concerning the autonomous navigation of a vehicle in a wind farm. In this environment, the dynamic shadows cast by the wind turbines’ blades make it necessary to include a shadows removal stage in the preprocessing of the visible spectrum images in order to avoid the shadows being misclassified as obstacles. In the thermal images, dynamic shadows completely disappear, something that does not always occur in the visible spectrum, even when the preprocessing is executed. Thus, a fusion on thermal and visible bands is performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Resistive Oxygen Sensor Using Ceria-Zirconia Sensor Material and Ceria-Yttria Temperature Compensating Material for Lean-Burn Engine
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8884-8895; doi:10.3390/s91108884
Received: 14 September 2009 / Revised: 13 October 2009 / Accepted: 2 November 2009 / Published: 5 November 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temperature compensating materials were investigated for a resistive oxygen sensor using Ce0.9Zr0.1O2 as a sensor material for lean-burn engines. The temperature dependence of a temperature compensating material should be the same as the sensor material; therefore, the Y
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Temperature compensating materials were investigated for a resistive oxygen sensor using Ce0.9Zr0.1O2 as a sensor material for lean-burn engines. The temperature dependence of a temperature compensating material should be the same as the sensor material; therefore, the Y concentration in CeO2-Y2O3 was optimized. The resistance of Ce0.5Y0.5O2-δ was independent of the air-to-fuel ratio (oxygen partial pressure), so that it was confirmed to function as a temperature compensating material. Sensor elements comprised of Ce0.9Zr0.1O2 and Ce0.5Y0.5O2-δ were fabricated and the output was determined to be approximately independent of the temperature in the wide range from 773 to 1,073 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Sensor for Distance Measurement Using Pixel Grey-Level Information
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8896-8906; doi:10.3390/s91108896
Received: 30 September 2009 / Revised: 29 October 2009 / Accepted: 4 November 2009 / Published: 6 November 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An alternative method for distance measurement is presented, based on a radiometric approach to the image formation process. The proposed methodology uses images from an infrared emitting diode (IRED) to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED. Camera output grey-level intensities
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An alternative method for distance measurement is presented, based on a radiometric approach to the image formation process. The proposed methodology uses images from an infrared emitting diode (IRED) to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED. Camera output grey-level intensities are a function of the accumulated image irradiance, which is also related by inverse distance square law to the distance between the camera and the IRED. Analyzing camera-IRED distance, magnitudes that affected image grey-level intensities, and therefore accumulated image irradiance, were integrated into a differential model which was calibrated and used for distance estimation over a 200 to 600 cm range. In a preliminary model, the camera and the emitter were aligned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessCommunication Miniaturized pH Sensors Based on Zinc Oxide Nanotubes/Nanorods
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8911-8923; doi:10.3390/s91108911
Received: 22 September 2009 / Revised: 19 October 2009 / Accepted: 19 October 2009 / Published: 9 November 2009
Cited by 66 | PDF Full-text (4689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ZnO nanotubes and nanorods grown on gold thin film were used to create pH sensor devices. The developed ZnO nanotube and nanorod pH sensors display good reproducibility, repeatability and long-term stability and exhibit a pH-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference electrode
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ZnO nanotubes and nanorods grown on gold thin film were used to create pH sensor devices. The developed ZnO nanotube and nanorod pH sensors display good reproducibility, repeatability and long-term stability and exhibit a pH-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference electrode over a large dynamic pH range. We found the ZnO nanotubes provide sensitivity as high as twice that of the ZnO nanorods, which can be ascribed to the fact that small dimensional ZnO nanotubes have a higher level of surface and subsurface oxygen vacancies and provide a larger effective surface area with higher surface-to-volume ratio as compared to ZnO nanorods, thus affording the ZnO nanotube pH sensor a higher sensitivity. Experimental results indicate ZnO nanotubes can be used in pH sensor applications with improved performance. Moreover, the ZnO nanotube arrays may find potential application as a novel material for measurements of intracellular biochemical species within single living cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Oxide Based Nanosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Robust Head Tracking System Based on Monocular Vision and Planar Templates
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8924-8943; doi:10.3390/s91108924
Received: 7 September 2009 / Revised: 9 October 2009 / Accepted: 15 October 2009 / Published: 11 November 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (14844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper details the implementation of a head tracking system suitable for its use in teleoperation stations or control centers, taking into account the limitations and constraints usually associated to those environments. The paper discusses and justifies the selection of the different methods
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This paper details the implementation of a head tracking system suitable for its use in teleoperation stations or control centers, taking into account the limitations and constraints usually associated to those environments. The paper discusses and justifies the selection of the different methods and sensors to build the head tracking system, detailing also the processing steps of the system in operation. A prototype to validate the proposed approach is also presented along with several tests in a real environment with promising results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Neural Network-Based Technique for Smart Gas Sensors Operating in a Dynamic Environment
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8944-8960; doi:10.3390/s91108944
Received: 9 September 2009 / Revised: 27 October 2009 / Accepted: 30 October 2009 / Published: 11 November 2009
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1028 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thanks to their high sensitivity and low-cost, metal oxide gas sensors (MOX) are widely used in gas detection, although they present well-known problems (lack of selectivity and environmental effects…). We present in this paper a novel neural network- based technique to remedy these
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Thanks to their high sensitivity and low-cost, metal oxide gas sensors (MOX) are widely used in gas detection, although they present well-known problems (lack of selectivity and environmental effects…). We present in this paper a novel neural network- based technique to remedy these problems. The idea is to create intelligent models; the first one, called corrector, can automatically linearize a sensor’s response characteristics and eliminate its dependency on the environmental parameters. The corrector’s responses are processed with the second intelligent model which has the role of discriminating exactly the detected gas (nature and concentration). The gas sensors used are industrial resistive kind (TGS8xx, by Figaro Engineering). The MATLAB environment is used during the design phase and optimization. The sensor models, the corrector, and the selective model were implemented and tested in the PSPICE simulator. The sensor model accurately expresses the nonlinear character of the response and the dependence on temperature and relative humidity in addition to their gas nature dependency. The corrector linearizes and compensates the sensor’s responses. The method discriminates qualitatively and quantitatively between seven gases. The advantage of the method is that it uses a small representative database so we can easily implement the model in an electrical simulator. This method can be extended to other sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
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Open AccessArticle Autonomous Distributed Self-Organization for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8961-8995; doi:10.3390/s91108961
Received: 9 June 2009 / Revised: 18 October 2009 / Accepted: 20 October 2009 / Published: 11 November 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an adaptive combined-metrics-based clustering scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks, which manages the mobile sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocates network resources efficiently. A local criteria is used to help mobile sensors form a new cluster or
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This paper presents an adaptive combined-metrics-based clustering scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks, which manages the mobile sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocates network resources efficiently. A local criteria is used to help mobile sensors form a new cluster or join a current cluster. The messages transmitted during hierarchical clustering are applied to choose distributed gateways such that communication for adjacent clusters and distributed topology control can be achieved. In order to balance the load among clusters and govern the topology change, a cluster reformation scheme using localized criterions is implemented. The proposed scheme is simulated and analyzed to abstract the network behaviors in a number of settings. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides efficient network topology management and achieves high scalability in mobile sensor networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors)
Open AccessArticle H2 Sensing Response of Flame-spray-made Ru/SnO2 Thick Films Fabricated from Spin-Coated Nanoparticles
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8996-9010; doi:10.3390/s91108996
Received: 7 August 2009 / Revised: 21 October 2009 / Accepted: 22 October 2009 / Published: 11 November 2009
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (1365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High specific surface area (SSABET: 141.6 m2/g) SnO2 nanoparticles doped with 0.2–3 wt% Ru were successfully produced in a single step by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). The phase and crystallite size were analyzed by XRD. The specific
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High specific surface area (SSABET: 141.6 m2/g) SnO2 nanoparticles doped with 0.2–3 wt% Ru were successfully produced in a single step by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). The phase and crystallite size were analyzed by XRD. The specific surface area (SSABET) of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption (BET analysis). As the Ru concentration increased, the SSABET was found to linearly decrease, while the average BET-equivalent particle diameter (dBET) increased. FSP yielded small Ru particles attached to the surface of the supporting SnO2 nanoparticles, indicating a high SSABET. The morphology and accurate size of the primary particles were further investigated by TEM. The crystallite sizes of the spherical, hexagonal, and rectangular SnO2 particles were in the range of 3–10 nm. SnO2 nanorods were found to range from 3–5 nm in width and 5–20 nm in length. Sensing films were prepared by the spin coating technique. The gas sensing of H2 (500–10,000 ppm) was studied at the operating temperatures ranging from 200–350 °C in presence of dry air. After the sensing tests, the morphology and the cross-section of sensing film were analyzed by SEM and EDS analyses. The 0.2%Ru-dispersed on SnO2 sensing film showed the highest sensitivity and a very fast response time (6 s) compared to a pure SnO2 sensing film, with a highest H2 concentration of 1 vol% at 350 °C and a low H2 detection limit of 500 ppm at 200 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Testing Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) as a Method of Land Cover Classification of TERRA-ASTER Satellite Images
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9011-9028; doi:10.3390/s91109011
Received: 24 September 2009 / Revised: 1 November 2009 / Accepted: 2 November 2009 / Published: 13 November 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work proposes a new method to classify multi-spectral satellite images based on multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) and compares this classification system with the more common parallelepiped and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. We apply the classification methods to the land cover classification
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This work proposes a new method to classify multi-spectral satellite images based on multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) and compares this classification system with the more common parallelepiped and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. We apply the classification methods to the land cover classification of a test zone located in southwestern Spain. The basis of the MARS method and its associated procedures are explained in detail, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is compared for the three methods. The results show that the MARS method provides better results than the parallelepiped method in all cases, and it provides better results than the maximum likelihood method in 13 cases out of 17. These results demonstrate that the MARS method can be used in isolation or in combination with other methods to improve the accuracy of soil cover classification. The improvement is statistically significant according to the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessArticle Selective Detection of Formaldehyde Gas Using a Cd-Doped TiO2-SnO2 Sensor
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9029-9038; doi:10.3390/s91109029
Received: 9 October 2009 / Revised: 28 October 2009 / Accepted: 29 October 2009 / Published: 13 November 2009
Cited by 67 | PDF Full-text (375 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report the microstructure and gas-sensing properties of a nonequilibrium TiO2-SnO2 solid solution prepared by the sol-gel method. In particular, we focus on the effect of Cd doping on the sensing behavior of the TiO2-SnO2 sensor. Of
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We report the microstructure and gas-sensing properties of a nonequilibrium TiO2-SnO2 solid solution prepared by the sol-gel method. In particular, we focus on the effect of Cd doping on the sensing behavior of the TiO2-SnO2 sensor. Of all volatile organic compound gases examined, the sensor with Cd doping exhibits exclusive selectivity as well as high sensitivity to formaldehyde, a main harmful indoor gas. The key gas-sensing quantities, maximum sensitivity, optimal working temperature, and response and recovery time, are found to meet the basic industrial needs. This makes the Cd-doped TiO2-SnO2 composite a promising sensor material for detecting the formaldehyde gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Recent Developments of an Opto-Electronic THz Spectrometer for High-Resolution Spectroscopy
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9039-9057; doi:10.3390/s91109039
Received: 21 September 2009 / Revised: 13 October 2009 / Accepted: 29 October 2009 / Published: 13 November 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1016 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review is provided of sources and detectors that can be employed in the THz range before the description of an opto-electronic source of monochromatic THz radiation. The realized spectrometer has been applied to gas phase spectroscopy. Air-broadening coefficients of HCN are determined
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A review is provided of sources and detectors that can be employed in the THz range before the description of an opto-electronic source of monochromatic THz radiation. The realized spectrometer has been applied to gas phase spectroscopy. Air-broadening coefficients of HCN are determined and the insensitivity of this technique to aerosols is demonstrated by the analysis of cigarette smoke. A multiple pass sample cell has been used to obtain a sensitivity improvement allowing transitions of the volatile organic compounds to be observed. A solution to the frequency metrology is presented and promises to yield accurate molecular line center measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle New Method for Estimation of Aeolian Sand Transport Rate Using Ceramic Sand Flux Sensor (UD-101)
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9058-9072; doi:10.3390/s91109058
Received: 26 August 2009 / Revised: 4 November 2009 / Accepted: 5 November 2009 / Published: 13 November 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a new method for the estimation of aeolian sand transport rate was developed; the method employs a ceramic sand flux sensor (UD-101). UD-101 detects wind-blown sand impacting on its surface. The method was devised by considering the results of wind
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In this study, a new method for the estimation of aeolian sand transport rate was developed; the method employs a ceramic sand flux sensor (UD-101). UD-101 detects wind-blown sand impacting on its surface. The method was devised by considering the results of wind tunnel experiments that were performed using a vertical sediment trap and the UD-101. Field measurements to evaluate the estimation accuracy during the prevalence of unsteady winds were performed on a flat backshore. The results showed that aeolian sand transport rates estimated using the developed method were of the same order as those estimated using the existing method for high transport rates, i.e., for transport rates greater than 0.01 kg m–1 s–1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan)
Open AccessArticle Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and Square Wave Voltammetry for Assay of Low Molecular Weight Antioxidants in Blood Plasma: Performance and Comparison of Methods
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9094-9103; doi:10.3390/s91109094
Received: 2 September 2009 / Revised: 7 October 2009 / Accepted: 22 October 2009 / Published: 17 November 2009
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to employ two methods—square wave voltammetry (SWV) performed on screen printed sensors and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)—as suitable tools for the assay of low-molecular-weight antioxidants (LMWAs). LMWAs were assayed by both methods and the resulting
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The purpose of the present study was to employ two methods—square wave voltammetry (SWV) performed on screen printed sensors and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)—as suitable tools for the assay of low-molecular-weight antioxidants (LMWAs). LMWAs were assayed by both methods and the resulting data were statistically compared. Plasma samples from five Cinereous vultures accidentally intoxicated with lead were used to represent real biological matrices with different levels of LMWAs. Blood was collected from the birds prior to and one month after treatment with Ca-EDTA. SWV resulted in two peaks. The first peak, with the potential value of 466 ± 15 mV, was recognized as ascorbic and uric acids, while the second one (743 ± 30 mV) represented glutathione, tocopherol, ascorbic acid and in a minor effect by uric acid, too. Contribution of individual antioxidants was recognized by separate assays of LMWA standards. Correlation between peaks 1 and 2 as well as the sum of the two peaks and FRAP was analysed. While peak 1 and the sum of peaks were in close correlation to FRAP results (correlation coefficient of 0.97), the relation between peak 2 and FRAP may be expressed using a correlation coefficient of 0.64. The determination of thiols by the Ellman assay confirmed the accuracy of SWV. Levels of glutathione and other similar structures were stable in the chosen model and it may be concluded that SWV is appropriate for assay of LMWAs in plasma samples. The methods employed in the study were advantageous in minimal sample volume consumption and fast acquisition of results. Full article
Open AccessArticle Performance Characteristics of a PEM Fuel Cell with Parallel Flow Channels at Different Cathode Relative Humidity Levels
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9104-9121; doi:10.3390/s91109104
Received: 26 August 2009 / Revised: 4 November 2009 / Accepted: 5 November 2009 / Published: 17 November 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In fuel cells flow configuration and operating conditions such as cell temperature, humidity at each electrode and stoichiometric number are very crucial for improving performance. Too many flow channels could enhance the performance but result in high parasite loss. Therefore a trade-off between
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In fuel cells flow configuration and operating conditions such as cell temperature, humidity at each electrode and stoichiometric number are very crucial for improving performance. Too many flow channels could enhance the performance but result in high parasite loss. Therefore a trade-off between pressure drop and efficiency of a fuel cell should be considered for optimum design. This work focused on numerical simulation of the effects of operating conditions, especially cathode humidity, with simple micro parallel flow channels. It is known that the humidity at the cathode flow channel becomes very important for enhancing the ion conductivity of polymer membrane because fully humidified condition was normally set at anode. To investigate the effect of humidity on the performance of a fuel cell, in this study humidification was set to 100% at the anode flow channel and was changed by 0–100% at the cathode flow channel. Results showed that the maximum power density could be obtained under 60% humidified condition at the cathode where oxygen concentration was moderately high while maintaining high ion conductivity at a membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering - 2009)
Open AccessArticle Electrosprayed Metal Oxide Semiconductor Films for Sensitive and Selective Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9122-9132; doi:10.3390/s91109122
Received: 13 October 2009 / Revised: 5 November 2009 / Accepted: 6 November 2009 / Published: 17 November 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Semiconductor metal oxide films of copper-doped tin oxide (Cu-SnO2), tungsten oxide (WO3) and indium oxide (In2O3) were deposited on a platinum coated alumina substrate employing the electrostatic spray deposition technique (ESD). The morphology studied with
[...] Read more.
Semiconductor metal oxide films of copper-doped tin oxide (Cu-SnO2), tungsten oxide (WO3) and indium oxide (In2O3) were deposited on a platinum coated alumina substrate employing the electrostatic spray deposition technique (ESD). The morphology studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows porous homogeneous films comprising uniformly distributed aggregates of nano particles. The X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) proves the formation of crystalline phases with no impurities. Besides, the Raman cartographies provided information about the structural homogeneity. Some of the films are highly sensitive to low concentrations of H2S (10 ppm) at low operating temperatures (100 and 200 °C) and the best response in terms of Rair/Rgas is given by Cu-SnO2 films (2500) followed by WO3 (1200) and In2O3 (75). Moreover, all the films exhibit no cross-sensitivity to other reducing (SO2) or oxidizing (NO2) gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Measuring Gait Using a Ground Laser Range Sensor
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9133-9146; doi:10.3390/s91109133
Received: 7 August 2009 / Revised: 20 October 2009 / Accepted: 24 October 2009 / Published: 17 November 2009
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a measurement system designed to register the displacement of the legs using a two-dimensional laser range sensor with a scanning plane parallel to the ground and extract gait parameters. In the proposed methodology, the position of the legs is estimated
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This paper describes a measurement system designed to register the displacement of the legs using a two-dimensional laser range sensor with a scanning plane parallel to the ground and extract gait parameters. In the proposed methodology, the position of the legs is estimated by fitting two circles with the laser points that define their contour and the gait parameters are extracted applying a step-line model to the estimated displacement of the legs to reduce uncertainty in the determination of the stand and swing phase of the gait. Results obtained in a range up to 8 m shows that the systematic error in the location of one static leg is lower than 10 mm with and standard deviation lower than 8 mm; this deviation increases to 11 mm in the case of a moving leg. The proposed measurement system has been applied to estimate the gait parameters of six volunteers in a preliminary walking experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motion Detectors)
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Open AccessArticle An Immunity-Based Anomaly Detection System with Sensor Agents
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9175-9195; doi:10.3390/s91109175
Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised: 5 November 2009 / Accepted: 9 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal
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This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal or abnormal. Conventional systems have used only a single sensor to detect anomalies, while the immunity-based system makes use of multiple sensors, which leads to improvements in detection accuracy. In addition, we propose an evaluation framework for the anomaly detection system, which is capable of evaluating the differences in detection accuracy between internal and external anomalies. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in user’s command sequences on UNIX-like systems. In experiments, the immunity-based system outperformed some of the best conventional systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan)
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Open AccessArticle Trial of Multidisciplinary Observation at an Expandable Sub-Marine Cabled Station “Off-Hatsushima Island Observatory” in Sagami Bay, Japan
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9241-9254; doi:10.3390/s91109241
Received: 25 September 2009 / Revised: 2 November 2009 / Accepted: 7 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sagami Bay is an active tectonic area in Japan. In 1993, a real-time deep sea floor observatory was deployed at 1,175 m depth about 7 km off Hatsushima Island, Sagami Bay to monitor seismic activities and other geophysical phenomena. Video cameras monitored biological
[...] Read more.
Sagami Bay is an active tectonic area in Japan. In 1993, a real-time deep sea floor observatory was deployed at 1,175 m depth about 7 km off Hatsushima Island, Sagami Bay to monitor seismic activities and other geophysical phenomena. Video cameras monitored biological activities associated with tectonic activities. The observation system was renovated completely in 2000. An ocean bottom electromagnetic meter (OBEM), an ocean bottom differential pressure gauge (DPG) system, and an ocean bottom gravity meter (OBG) were installed January 2005; operations began in February of that year. An earthquake (M5.4) in April 2006, generated a submarine landslide that reached the Hatsushima Observatory, moving some sensors. The video camera took movies of mudflows; OBEM and other sensors detected distinctive changes occurring with the mudflow. Although the DPG and OBG were recovered in January 2008, the OBEM continues to obtain data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan)
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Open AccessArticle A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9255-9274; doi:10.3390/s91109255
Received: 2 September 2009 / Revised: 25 September 2009 / Accepted: 13 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (3709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe a CMOS-based micro-system for time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis. It comprises a 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry and a second device incorporating an 8 ×
[...] Read more.
We describe a CMOS-based micro-system for time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis. It comprises a 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry and a second device incorporating an 8 × 8 AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diode (micro-LED) array bump-bonded to an equivalent array of LED drivers realized in a standard low-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS technology, capable of producing excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM). This system replaces instrumentation based on lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics and discrete electronics with a PC-based micro-system. Demonstrator lifetime measurements of colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delft Workshop 2008-2009—Sensors and Imagers: a VLSI Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle The Development of a Portable Hard Disk Encryption/Decryption System with a MEMS Coded Lock
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9300-9331; doi:10.3390/s91109300
Received: 4 August 2009 / Revised: 8 October 2009 / Accepted: 12 November 2009 / Published: 19 November 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system with a MEMS coded lock is presented, which can authenticate the user and provide the key for the AES encryption/decryption module. The portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system is composed of the authentication module, the USB
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system with a MEMS coded lock is presented, which can authenticate the user and provide the key for the AES encryption/decryption module. The portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system is composed of the authentication module, the USB portable hard-disk interface card, the ATA protocol command decoder module, the data encryption/decryption module, the cipher key management module, the MEMS coded lock controlling circuit module, the MEMS coded lock and the hard disk. The ATA protocol circuit, the MEMS control circuit and AES encryption/decryption circuit are designed and realized by FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array). The MEMS coded lock with two couplers and two groups of counter-meshing-gears (CMGs) are fabricated by a LIGA-like process and precision engineering method. The whole prototype was fabricated and tested. The test results show that the user’s password could be correctly discriminated by the MEMS coded lock, and the AES encryption module could get the key from the MEMS coded lock. Moreover, the data in the hard-disk could be encrypted or decrypted, and the read-write speed of the dataflow could reach 17 MB/s in Ultra DMA mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering - 2009)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Anti-HER2 Antibody Conjugated CdSe/CdZnS Quantum Dots for Fluorescence Imaging of Breast Cancer Cells
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9332-9354; doi:10.3390/s91109332
Received: 21 September 2009 / Revised: 3 November 2009 / Accepted: 12 November 2009 / Published: 19 November 2009
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (3226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The early detection of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) status in breast cancer patients is very important for the effective implementation of anti-HER2 antibody therapy. Recently, HER2 detections using antibody conjugated quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention. QDs are a
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The early detection of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) status in breast cancer patients is very important for the effective implementation of anti-HER2 antibody therapy. Recently, HER2 detections using antibody conjugated quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention. QDs are a new class of fluorescent materials that have superior properties such as high brightness, high resistance to photo-bleaching, and multi-colored emission by a single-light source excitation. In this study, we synthesized three types of anti-HER2 antibody conjugated QDs (HER2Ab-QDs) using different coupling agents (EDC/sulfo-NHS, iminothiolane/sulfo-SMCC, and sulfo-SMCC). As water-soluble QDs for the conjugation of antibody, we used glutathione coated CdSe/CdZnS QDs (GSH-QDs) with fluorescence quantum yields of 0.23~0.39 in aqueous solution. Dispersibility, hydrodynamic size, and apparent molecular weights of the GSH-QDs and HER2Ab-QDs were characterized by using dynamic light scattering, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, and size-exclusion HPLC. Fluorescence imaging of HER2 overexpressing cells (KPL-4 human breast cancer cell line) was performed by using HER2Ab-QDs as fluorescent probes. We found that the HER2Ab-QD prepared by using SMCC coupling with partially reduced antibody is a most effective probe for the detection of HER2 expression in KPL-4 cells. We have also studied the size dependency of HER2Ab-QDs (with green, orange, and red emission) on the fluorescence image of KPL-4 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Chemosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Segment Tracking via a Spatiotemporal Linking Process including Feedback Stabilization in an n-D Lattice Model
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9355-9379; doi:10.3390/s91109355
Received: 7 August 2009 / Revised: 5 November 2009 / Accepted: 9 November 2009 / Published: 20 November 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Model-free tracking is important for solving tasks such as moving-object tracking and action recognition in cases where no prior object knowledge is available. For this purpose, we extend the concept of spatially synchronous dynamics in spin-lattice models to the spatiotemporal domain to track
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Model-free tracking is important for solving tasks such as moving-object tracking and action recognition in cases where no prior object knowledge is available. For this purpose, we extend the concept of spatially synchronous dynamics in spin-lattice models to the spatiotemporal domain to track segments within an image sequence. The method is related to synchronization processes in neural networks and based on superparamagnetic clustering of data. Spin interactions result in the formation of clusters of correlated spins, providing an automatic labeling of corresponding image regions. The algorithm obeys detailed balance. This is an important property as it allows for consistent spin-transfer across subsequent frames, which can be used for segment tracking. Therefore, in the tracking process the correct equilibrium will always be found, which is an important advance as compared with other more heuristic tracking procedures. In the case of long image sequences, i.e., movies, the algorithm is augmented with a feedback mechanism, further stabilizing segment tracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motion Detectors)
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Open AccessArticle Improving Security for SCADA Sensor Networks with Reputation Systems and Self-Organizing Maps
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9380-9397; doi:10.3390/s91109380
Received: 9 October 2009 / Revised: 30 October 2009 / Accepted: 4 November 2009 / Published: 20 November 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The reliable operation of modern infrastructures depends on computerized systems and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, which are also based on the data obtained from sensor networks. The inherent limitations of the sensor devices make them extremely vulnerable to cyberwarfare/cyberterrorism attacks.
[...] Read more.
The reliable operation of modern infrastructures depends on computerized systems and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, which are also based on the data obtained from sensor networks. The inherent limitations of the sensor devices make them extremely vulnerable to cyberwarfare/cyberterrorism attacks. In this paper, we propose a reputation system enhanced with distributed agents, based on unsupervised learning algorithms (self-organizing maps), in order to achieve fault tolerance and enhanced resistance to previously unknown attacks. This approach has been extensively simulated and compared with previous proposals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessArticle Field Performance of Nine Soil Water Content Sensors on a Sandy Loam Soil in New Brunswick, Maritime Region, Canada
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9398-9413; doi:10.3390/s91109398
Received: 27 October 2009 / Revised: 10 November 2009 / Accepted: 16 November 2009 / Published: 24 November 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada) using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors,
[...] Read more.
An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada) using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE) of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r2 of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917), and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r2 of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)

Review

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Open AccessReview Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8399-8421; doi:10.3390/s91108399
Received: 14 September 2009 / Revised: 28 September 2009 / Accepted: 10 October 2009 / Published: 26 October 2009
Cited by 72 | PDF Full-text (451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange
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The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
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Open AccessReview Applications of Nanomaterials in Electrochemical Enzyme Biosensors
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8547-8561; doi:10.3390/s91108547
Received: 17 August 2009 / Revised: 14 October 2009 / Accepted: 16 October 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 57 | PDF Full-text (680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A biosensor is defined as a kind of analytical device incorporating a biological material, a biologically derived material or a biomimic intimately associated with or integrated within a physicochemical transducer or transducing microsystem. Electrochemical biosensors incorporating enzymes with nanomaterials, which combine the recognition
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A biosensor is defined as a kind of analytical device incorporating a biological material, a biologically derived material or a biomimic intimately associated with or integrated within a physicochemical transducer or transducing microsystem. Electrochemical biosensors incorporating enzymes with nanomaterials, which combine the recognition and catalytic properties of enzymes with the electronic properties of various nanomaterials, are new materials with synergistic properties originating from the components of the hybrid composites. Therefore, these systems have excellent prospects for interfacing biological recognition events through electronic signal transduction so as to design a new generation of bioelectronic devices with high sensitivity and stability. In this review, we describe approaches that involve nanomaterials in direct electrochemistry of redox proteins, especially our work on biosensor design immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6), hemoglobin (Hb), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The topics of the present review are the different functions of nanomaterials based on modification of electrode materials, as well as applications of electrochemical enzyme biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessReview Understanding of Coupled Terrestrial Carbon, Nitrogen and Water Dynamics—An Overview
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8624-8657; doi:10.3390/s91108624
Received: 20 August 2009 / Revised: 12 October 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coupled terrestrial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and hydrological processes play a crucial role in the climate system, providing both positive and negative feedbacks to climate change. In this review we summarize published research results to gain an increased understanding of the dynamics between
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Coupled terrestrial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and hydrological processes play a crucial role in the climate system, providing both positive and negative feedbacks to climate change. In this review we summarize published research results to gain an increased understanding of the dynamics between vegetation and atmosphere processes. A variety of methods, including monitoring (e.g., eddy covariance flux tower, remote sensing, etc.) and modeling (i.e., ecosystem, hydrology and atmospheric inversion modeling) the terrestrial carbon and water budgeting, are evaluated and compared. We highlight two major research areas where additional research could be focused: (i) Conceptually, the hydrological and biogeochemical processes are closely linked, however, the coupling processes between terrestrial C, N and hydrological processes are far from well understood; and (ii) there are significant uncertainties in estimates of the components of the C balance, especially at landscape and regional scales. To address these two questions, a synthetic research framework is needed which includes both bottom-up and top-down approaches integrating scalable (footprint and ecosystem) models and a spatially nested hierarchy of observations which include multispectral remote sensing, inventories, existing regional clusters of eddy-covariance flux towers and CO2 mixing ratio towers and chambers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
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Open AccessReview An Integrated ISFET Sensor Array
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8831-8851; doi:10.3390/s91108831
Received: 5 August 2009 / Revised: 30 September 2009 / Accepted: 16 October 2009 / Published: 4 November 2009
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (1308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A monolithically integrated ISFET sensor array and interface circuit are described. A new high-density, low-power source-drain follower was developed for the sensor array. ISFETs were formed by depositing Au/Ti extended-gate electrodes on standard MOSFETs, then thin silicon nitride layers using catalytic chemical vapor
[...] Read more.
A monolithically integrated ISFET sensor array and interface circuit are described. A new high-density, low-power source-drain follower was developed for the sensor array. ISFETs were formed by depositing Au/Ti extended-gate electrodes on standard MOSFETs, then thin silicon nitride layers using catalytic chemical vapor deposition and/or SU-8 protective layers were formed on the extended-gate electrodes. Applications for the array include: (1) pH detection by statistical distribution observing time and space fluctuations; (2) DNA detection using thiol-modified or silane-coupled oligonucleotides; (3) bio-image sensing by converting photons to electrons using Photosystem I of Thermosynechococcus elongatus, and sensing the converted electric charges by ISFETs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ISFET Sensors)
Open AccessReview Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9073-9093; doi:10.3390/s91109073
Received: 5 August 2009 / Revised: 6 November 2009 / Accepted: 9 November 2009 / Published: 17 November 2009
Cited by 49 | PDF Full-text (9350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan)
Open AccessReview Reporter Proteins in Whole-Cell Optical Bioreporter Detection Systems, Biosensor Integrations, and Biosensing Applications
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9147-9174; doi:10.3390/s91109147
Received: 18 September 2009 / Revised: 14 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 17 November 2009
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (607 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whole-cell, genetically modified bioreporters are designed to emit detectable signals in response to a target analyte or related group of analytes. When integrated with a transducer capable of measuring those signals, a biosensor results that acts as a self-contained analytical system useful in
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Whole-cell, genetically modified bioreporters are designed to emit detectable signals in response to a target analyte or related group of analytes. When integrated with a transducer capable of measuring those signals, a biosensor results that acts as a self-contained analytical system useful in basic and applied environmental, medical, pharmacological, and agricultural sciences. Historically, these devices have focused on signaling proteins such as green fluorescent protein, aequorin, firefly luciferase, and/or bacterial luciferase. The biochemistry and genetic development of these sensor systems as well as the advantages, challenges, and common applications of each one will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Sensors and Biosensors)
Open AccessReview Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9196-9215; doi:10.3390/s91109196
Received: 27 September 2009 / Revised: 6 November 2009 / Accepted: 7 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde
[...] Read more.
Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessReview Thin Magnetically Soft Wires for Magnetic Microsensors
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9216-9240; doi:10.3390/s91109216
Received: 29 September 2009 / Revised: 9 November 2009 / Accepted: 11 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
Cited by 94 | PDF Full-text (833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances in technology involving magnetic materials require development of novel advanced magnetic materials with improved magnetic and magneto-transport properties and with reduced dimensionality. Therefore magnetic materials with outstanding magnetic characteristics and reduced dimensionality have recently gained much attention. Among these magnetic materials
[...] Read more.
Recent advances in technology involving magnetic materials require development of novel advanced magnetic materials with improved magnetic and magneto-transport properties and with reduced dimensionality. Therefore magnetic materials with outstanding magnetic characteristics and reduced dimensionality have recently gained much attention. Among these magnetic materials a family of thin wires with reduced geometrical dimensions (of order of 1–30 μm in diameter) have gained importance within the last few years. These thin wires combine excellent soft magnetic properties (with coercivities up to 4 A/m) with attractive magneto-transport properties (Giant Magneto-impedance effect, GMI, Giant Magneto-resistance effect, GMR) and an unusual re-magnetization process in positive magnetostriction compositions exhibiting quite fast domain wall propagation. In this paper we overview the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of these microwires that make them suitable for microsensor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessReview Tiny Medicine: Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9275-9299; doi:10.3390/s91109275
Received: 10 October 2009 / Revised: 3 November 2009 / Accepted: 9 November 2009 / Published: 19 November 2009
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tiny medicine refers to the development of small easy to use devices that can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of disease. Early diagnosis is the key to successfully treating many diseases. Nanomaterial-based biosensors utilize the unique properties of biological and physical
[...] Read more.
Tiny medicine refers to the development of small easy to use devices that can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of disease. Early diagnosis is the key to successfully treating many diseases. Nanomaterial-based biosensors utilize the unique properties of biological and physical nanomaterials to recognize a target molecule and effect transduction of an electronic signal. In general, the advantages of nanomaterial-based biosensors are fast response, small size, high sensitivity, and portability compared to existing large electrodes and sensors. Systems integration is the core technology that enables tiny medicine. Integration of nanomaterials, microfluidics, automatic samplers, and transduction devices on a single chip provides many advantages for point of care devices such as biosensors. Biosensors are also being used as new analytical tools to study medicine. Thus this paper reviews how nanomaterials can be used to build biosensors and how these biosensors can help now and in the future to detect disease and monitor therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessReview Use of Biosensors as Alternatives to Current Regulatory Methods for Marine Biotoxins
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9414-9443; doi:10.3390/s91109414
Received: 14 September 2009 / Revised: 27 October 2009 / Accepted: 28 October 2009 / Published: 24 November 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine toxins are currently monitored by means of a bioassay that requires the use of many mice, which poses a technical and ethical problem in many countries. With the exception of domoic acid, there is a legal requirement for the presence of other
[...] Read more.
Marine toxins are currently monitored by means of a bioassay that requires the use of many mice, which poses a technical and ethical problem in many countries. With the exception of domoic acid, there is a legal requirement for the presence of other toxins (yessotoxin, saxitoxin and analogs, okadaic acid and analogs, pectenotoxins and azaspiracids) in seafood to be controlled by bioassay, but other toxins, such as palytoxin, cyclic imines, ciguatera and tetrodotoxin are potentially present in European food and there are no legal requirements or technical approaches available to identify their presence. The need for alternative methods to the bioassay is clearly important, and biosensors have become in recent years a feasible alternative to animal sacrifice. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using biosensors as alternatives to animal assays for marine toxins, with particular focus on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Chemosensors)

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