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Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and Square Wave Voltammetry for Assay of Low Molecular Weight Antioxidants in Blood Plasma: Performance and Comparison of Methods
Centre of Advanced Studies and Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence / Trebesska 1575, 50001 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
Department of Veterinary Ecology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackeho 1/3, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 95, 532 10 Pardubice, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2009; in revised form: 7 October 2009 / Accepted: 22 October 2009 / Published: 17 November 2009
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to employ two methods—square wave voltammetry (SWV) performed on screen printed sensors and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)—as suitable tools for the assay of low-molecular-weight antioxidants (LMWAs). LMWAs were assayed by both methods and the resulting data were statistically compared. Plasma samples from five Cinereous vultures accidentally intoxicated with lead were used to represent real biological matrices with different levels of LMWAs. Blood was collected from the birds prior to and one month after treatment with Ca-EDTA. SWV resulted in two peaks. The first peak, with the potential value of 466 ± 15 mV, was recognized as ascorbic and uric acids, while the second one (743 ± 30 mV) represented glutathione, tocopherol, ascorbic acid and in a minor effect by uric acid, too. Contribution of individual antioxidants was recognized by separate assays of LMWA standards. Correlation between peaks 1 and 2 as well as the sum of the two peaks and FRAP was analysed. While peak 1 and the sum of peaks were in close correlation to FRAP results (correlation coefficient of 0.97), the relation between peak 2 and FRAP may be expressed using a correlation coefficient of 0.64. The determination of thiols by the Ellman assay confirmed the accuracy of SWV. Levels of glutathione and other similar structures were stable in the chosen model and it may be concluded that SWV is appropriate for assay of LMWAs in plasma samples. The methods employed in the study were advantageous in minimal sample volume consumption and fast acquisition of results.
Keywords: lead intoxication; Cinereous vultures; glutathione; ascorbate; uric acid; analytical methods
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Pohanka, M.; Bandouchova, H.; Sobotka, J.; Sedlackova, J.; Soukupova, I.; Pikula, J. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and Square Wave Voltammetry for Assay of Low Molecular Weight Antioxidants in Blood Plasma: Performance and Comparison of Methods. Sensors 2009, 9, 9094-9103.
Pohanka M, Bandouchova H, Sobotka J, Sedlackova J, Soukupova I, Pikula J. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and Square Wave Voltammetry for Assay of Low Molecular Weight Antioxidants in Blood Plasma: Performance and Comparison of Methods. Sensors. 2009; 9(11):9094-9103.
Pohanka, Miroslav; Bandouchova, Hana; Sobotka, Jakub; Sedlackova, Jana; Soukupova, Ivana; Pikula, Jiri. 2009. "Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and Square Wave Voltammetry for Assay of Low Molecular Weight Antioxidants in Blood Plasma: Performance and Comparison of Methods." Sensors 9, no. 11: 9094-9103.