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Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9255-9274; doi:10.3390/s91109255

A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System

1,* , 1
1 Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, The School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, The King’s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, UK 2 Institute of Photonics, University of Strathclyde, 106 Rottenrow, Glasgow, G4 0NW, UK 3 Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2009 / Revised: 25 September 2009 / Accepted: 13 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delft Workshop 2008-2009—Sensors and Imagers: a VLSI Perspective)
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We describe a CMOS-based micro-system for time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis. It comprises a 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry and a second device incorporating an 8 × 8 AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diode (micro-LED) array bump-bonded to an equivalent array of LED drivers realized in a standard low-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS technology, capable of producing excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM). This system replaces instrumentation based on lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics and discrete electronics with a PC-based micro-system. Demonstrator lifetime measurements of colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples are presented.
Keywords: CMOS; single-photon avalanche diodes; GaN; micro light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs); fluorescence lifetime; micro-system CMOS; single-photon avalanche diodes; GaN; micro light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs); fluorescence lifetime; micro-system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Rae, B.R.; Muir, K.R.; Gong, Z.; McKendry, J.; Girkin, J.M.; Gu, E.; Renshaw, D.; Dawson, M.D.; Henderson, R.K. A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System. Sensors 2009, 9, 9255-9274.

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