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A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System
Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, The School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, The King’s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, UK
Institute of Photonics, University of Strathclyde, 106 Rottenrow, Glasgow, G4 0NW, UK
Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2009; in revised form: 25 September 2009 / Accepted: 13 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
Abstract: We describe a CMOS-based micro-system for time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis. It comprises a 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry and a second device incorporating an 8 × 8 AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diode (micro-LED) array bump-bonded to an equivalent array of LED drivers realized in a standard low-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS technology, capable of producing excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM). This system replaces instrumentation based on lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics and discrete electronics with a PC-based micro-system. Demonstrator lifetime measurements of colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples are presented.
Keywords: CMOS; single-photon avalanche diodes; GaN; micro light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs); fluorescence lifetime; micro-system
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Rae, B.R.; Muir, K.R.; Gong, Z.; McKendry, J.; Girkin, J.M.; Gu, E.; Renshaw, D.; Dawson, M.D.; Henderson, R.K. A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System. Sensors 2009, 9, 9255-9274.
Rae BR, Muir KR, Gong Z, McKendry J, Girkin JM, Gu E, Renshaw D, Dawson MD, Henderson RK. A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System. Sensors. 2009; 9(11):9255-9274.
Rae, Bruce R.; Muir, Keith R.; Gong, Zheng; McKendry, Jonathan; Girkin, John M.; Gu, Erdan; Renshaw, David; Dawson, Martin D.; Henderson, Robert K. 2009. "A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System." Sensors 9, no. 11: 9255-9274.