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Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9255-9274; doi:10.3390/s91109255
Article

A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System

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1 Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, The School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, The King’s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, UK 2 Institute of Photonics, University of Strathclyde, 106 Rottenrow, Glasgow, G4 0NW, UK 3 Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2009 / Revised: 25 September 2009 / Accepted: 13 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delft Workshop 2008-2009—Sensors and Imagers: a VLSI Perspective)
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Abstract

We describe a CMOS-based micro-system for time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis. It comprises a 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry and a second device incorporating an 8 × 8 AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diode (micro-LED) array bump-bonded to an equivalent array of LED drivers realized in a standard low-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS technology, capable of producing excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM). This system replaces instrumentation based on lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics and discrete electronics with a PC-based micro-system. Demonstrator lifetime measurements of colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples are presented.
Keywords: CMOS; single-photon avalanche diodes; GaN; micro light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs); fluorescence lifetime; micro-system CMOS; single-photon avalanche diodes; GaN; micro light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs); fluorescence lifetime; micro-system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Rae, B.R.; Muir, K.R.; Gong, Z.; McKendry, J.; Girkin, J.M.; Gu, E.; Renshaw, D.; Dawson, M.D.; Henderson, R.K. A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System. Sensors 2009, 9, 9255-9274.

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