Next Article in Journal
Circular High-Q Resonating Isotropic Strain Sensors with Large Shift of Resonance Frequency under Stress
Next Article in Special Issue
Fluorescence-based Sensing of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Using a Multi-channeled Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Microimmunosensor
Previous Article in Journal
Field Performance of Nine Soil Water Content Sensors on a Sandy Loam Soil in New Brunswick, Maritime Region, Canada
Previous Article in Special Issue
Synthesis and Characterization of Anti-HER2 Antibody Conjugated CdSe/CdZnS Quantum Dots for Fluorescence Imaging of Breast Cancer Cells
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9414-9443; doi:10.3390/s91109414

Use of Biosensors as Alternatives to Current Regulatory Methods for Marine Biotoxins

Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, 27002 Lugo, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2009 / Revised: 27 October 2009 / Accepted: 28 October 2009 / Published: 24 November 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Chemosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [371 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures


Marine toxins are currently monitored by means of a bioassay that requires the use of many mice, which poses a technical and ethical problem in many countries. With the exception of domoic acid, there is a legal requirement for the presence of other toxins (yessotoxin, saxitoxin and analogs, okadaic acid and analogs, pectenotoxins and azaspiracids) in seafood to be controlled by bioassay, but other toxins, such as palytoxin, cyclic imines, ciguatera and tetrodotoxin are potentially present in European food and there are no legal requirements or technical approaches available to identify their presence. The need for alternative methods to the bioassay is clearly important, and biosensors have become in recent years a feasible alternative to animal sacrifice. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using biosensors as alternatives to animal assays for marine toxins, with particular focus on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology.
Keywords: biosensor; seafood; shellfish poisoning; marine toxins; surface plasmon resonance biosensor; seafood; shellfish poisoning; marine toxins; surface plasmon resonance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Vilariño, N.; Fonfría, E.S.; Louzao, M.C.; Botana, L.M. Use of Biosensors as Alternatives to Current Regulatory Methods for Marine Biotoxins. Sensors 2009, 9, 9414-9443.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert