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Molecules, Volume 17, Issue 6 (June 2012), Pages 6179-7611

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Open AccessArticle Down Regulation of CIAPIN1 Reverses Multidrug Resistance in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Inhibiting MDR1
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7595-7611; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067595
Received: 13 March 2012 / Revised: 11 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 20 June 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1460 KB)
Abstract
Cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1), initially named anamorsin, a newly indentified antiapoptotic molecule is a downstream effector of the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras signaling pathway. Current study has revealed that CIAPIN1 may have wide and important functions, especially due to its close correlations with
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Cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1), initially named anamorsin, a newly indentified antiapoptotic molecule is a downstream effector of the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras signaling pathway. Current study has revealed that CIAPIN1 may have wide and important functions, especially due to its close correlations with malignant tumors. However whether or not it is involved in the multi-drug resistance (MDR) process of breast cancer has not been elucidated. To explore the effect of CIAPIN1 on MDR, we examined the expression of P-gp and CIAPIN1 by immunohistochemistry and found there was positive correlation between them. Then we successfully interfered with RNA translation by the infection of siRNA of CIAPIN1 into MCF7/ADM breast cancer cell lines through a lentivirus, and the expression of the target gene was significantly inhibited. After RNAi the drug resistance was reduced significantly and the expression of MDR1mRNA and P-gp in MCF7/ADM cell lines showed a significant decrease. Also the expression of P53 protein increased in a statistically significant way (p ≤ 0.01) after RNAi exposure. In addition, flow cytometry analysis reveals that cell cycle and anti-apoptotic enhancing capability of cells changed after RNAi treatment. These results suggested CIAPIN1 may participate in breast cancer MDR by regulating MDR1 and P53 expression, changing cell cycle and enhancing the anti-apoptotic capability of cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Acid and Base Catalyzed Hydrolysis on the Yield of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Germinated Brown Rice (GBR)
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7584-7594; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067584
Received: 1 May 2012 / Revised: 21 May 2012 / Accepted: 25 May 2012 / Published: 19 June 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (282 KB)
Abstract
The influence of both acidic and basic hydrolysis on the yield, total phenolic content and antioxidative capacity of methanolic extract of germinated brown rice (GBR) was studied. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical
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The influence of both acidic and basic hydrolysis on the yield, total phenolic content and antioxidative capacity of methanolic extract of germinated brown rice (GBR) was studied. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests were used for the measurement of antioxidant ability. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the TPC and DPPH radical scavenging assay results when comparing neutral with acidic and basic catalysed hydrolysis. The yield of the crude extract was slightly higher in acidic hydrolysis than in basic hydrolysis (p > 0.05). The TPC and TFC were highest in acidic hydrolysis. A significant correlation was observed between ABTS radical cation scavenging and FRAP. The antioxidant activity measured using DPPH radical scavenging assay showed high activity in acidic hydrolysis, while the ABTS radical cationscavenging activity and FRAP showed the highest values in basic hydrolysis. The samples were further evaluated using HPLC to determine the individual phenolic concentrations in different hydrolytic media contributing to the antioxidant effects. This study revealed that acidic and basic hydrolysis can improve the yield, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of germinated brown rice. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Main-Chain Chiral Quaternary Ammonium Polymers for Asymmetric Catalysis Using Quaternization Polymerization
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7569-7583; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067569
Received: 27 April 2012 / Revised: 4 June 2012 / Accepted: 13 June 2012 / Published: 19 June 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (365 KB)
Abstract
Main-chain chiral quaternary ammonium polymers were successfully synthesized by the quaternization polymerization of cinchonidine dimer with dihalides. The polymerization occurred smoothly under optimized conditions to give novel type of main-chain chiral quaternary ammonium polymers. The catalytic activity of the polymeric chiral organocatalysts was
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Main-chain chiral quaternary ammonium polymers were successfully synthesized by the quaternization polymerization of cinchonidine dimer with dihalides. The polymerization occurred smoothly under optimized conditions to give novel type of main-chain chiral quaternary ammonium polymers. The catalytic activity of the polymeric chiral organocatalysts was investigated on the asymmetric benzylation of N-(diphenylmethylidene)glycine tert-butyl ester. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asymmetric Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Furozan-Based Nitric Oxide-Releasing Derivatives of Oridonin as Potential Anti-Tumor Agents
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7556-7568; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067556
Received: 25 April 2012 / Revised: 8 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (335 KB)
Abstract
To search for novel nitric oxide (NO) releasing anti-tumor agents, a series of novel furoxan/oridonin hybrids were designed and synthesized. Firstly, the nitrate/nitrite levels in the cell lysates were tested by a Griess assay and the results showed that these furoxan-based NO-releasing derivatives
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To search for novel nitric oxide (NO) releasing anti-tumor agents, a series of novel furoxan/oridonin hybrids were designed and synthesized. Firstly, the nitrate/nitrite levels in the cell lysates were tested by a Griess assay and the results showed that these furoxan-based NO-releasing derivatives could produce high levels of NO in vitro. Then the anti-proliferative activity of these hybrids against four human cancer cell lines was also determined, among which, 9h exhibited the most potential anti-tumor activity with IC50 values of 1.82 µM against K562, 1.81 µM against MGC-803 and 0.86 µM against Bel-7402, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationship was concluded based on the experimental data obtained. These results suggested that NO-donor/natural product hybrids may provide a promising approach for the discovery of novel anti-tumor agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Antiviral Potential of 14-Aryl/Heteroaryl-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes Using an Efficient Polymer-Supported Catalyst
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7543-7555; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067543
Received: 11 May 2012 / Revised: 8 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (287 KB)
Abstract
Polyethyleneglycol bound sulfonic acid (PEG-OSO3H), a chlorosulphonic acid-modified polyethylene glycol was successfully used as an efficient and eco-friendly polymeric catalyst in the synthesis of 14-aryl/heteroaryl-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes obtained from the reaction of 2-naphthol and carbonyl compounds under solvent-free conditions
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Polyethyleneglycol bound sulfonic acid (PEG-OSO3H), a chlorosulphonic acid-modified polyethylene glycol was successfully used as an efficient and eco-friendly polymeric catalyst in the synthesis of 14-aryl/heteroaryl-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes obtained from the reaction of 2-naphthol and carbonyl compounds under solvent-free conditions with short reaction times and excellent yields. The biological properties of these synthesized title compounds revealed that compounds 3b, 3c, 3f and 3i showed highly significant anti-viral activity against tobacco mosaic virus. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Joint Action of Destruxins and Botanical Insecticides (Rotenone, Azadirachtin and Paeonolum) Against the Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7533-7542; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067533
Received: 28 April 2012 / Revised: 7 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (180 KB)
Abstract
The joint action of destruxins and three botanical insecticides, rotenone (Rot), azadirachtin (Aza) and paeonolum (Pae) against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, was bioassayed. In laboratory experiment, several synergistic groups of destruxins with botanical insecticides were found by means of Sun’s Co-toxicity
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The joint action of destruxins and three botanical insecticides, rotenone (Rot), azadirachtin (Aza) and paeonolum (Pae) against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, was bioassayed. In laboratory experiment, several synergistic groups of destruxins with botanical insecticides were found by means of Sun’s Co-toxicity Coefficients (CTC) and Finney’s Synergistic Coefficient (SC). The best synergistic effect was discovered in the ratio group Des/Rot 1/9 with the CTC or SC and LC50 values of 479.93 or 4.8 and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. The second and third synergistic effects were recorded in the ratio groups Des/Rot 7/3 and 9/1. Although the ratio groups Des/Aza 6/4, Des/Pae 4/6, 3/7 and 2/8 indicated synergism by Sun’s CTC, they were determined as additive actions by Finney’s SC. Additive actions were also found in most of the ratio groups, but antagonism were recorded only in three ratio groups: Des/Pae 9/1, 7/3 and 6/4. In greenhouse tests, the highest mortality was 98.9% with the treatment Des/Rot 1/9 at 0.60 μg/mL, meanwhile, the treatments Des/Pae 4/6 and Des/Aza 6/4 had approximately 88% mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessCommunication Enantioselective Michael Addition of 3-Aryl-Substituted Oxindoles to Methyl Vinyl Ketone Catalyzed by a Binaphthyl-Modified Bifunctional Organocatalyst
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7523-7532; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067523
Received: 2 May 2012 / Revised: 6 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (234 KB)
Abstract
The enantioselective conjugate addition reaction of 3-aryl-substituted oxindoles with methyl vinyl ketone promoted by binaphthyl-modified bifunctional organocatalysts was investigated. The corresponding Michael adducts, containing a quaternary center at the C3-position of the oxindoles, were generally obtained in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities (up
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The enantioselective conjugate addition reaction of 3-aryl-substituted oxindoles with methyl vinyl ketone promoted by binaphthyl-modified bifunctional organocatalysts was investigated. The corresponding Michael adducts, containing a quaternary center at the C3-position of the oxindoles, were generally obtained in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 91% ee). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asymmetric Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Guanidine Affects Differentially the Twitch Response of Diaphragm, Extensor Digitorum Longus and Soleus Nerve-Muscle Preparations of Mice
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7503-7522; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067503
Received: 22 May 2012 / Revised: 6 June 2012 / Accepted: 7 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
PDF Full-text (1009 KB)
Abstract
Guanidine has been used with some success to treat myasthenia gravis and myasthenic syndrome because it increases acetylcholine release at nerve terminals through K+, Na+ and Ca2+ channels-involving mechanisms. Currently, guanidine derivatives have been proposed for treatment of several
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Guanidine has been used with some success to treat myasthenia gravis and myasthenic syndrome because it increases acetylcholine release at nerve terminals through K+, Na+ and Ca2+ channels-involving mechanisms. Currently, guanidine derivatives have been proposed for treatment of several diseases. Studies aimed at providing new insights to the drug are relevant. Experimentally, guanidine (10 mM) induces on mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations neurotransmission facilitation followed by blockade and a greatest secondary facilitation after its removal from bath. Herein, we hypothesized that this peculiar triphasic response may differ in muscles with distinct twitch/metabolic characteristics. Morphological alterations and contractile response of PND, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) preparations incubated with guanidine (10 mM) for 15, 30, 60 min were analyzed. Guanidine concentrations of 5 mM (for PND and EDL) and 1 mM (for EDL) were also tested. Guanidine triphasic effect was only observed on PND regardless the concentration. The morphological alterations in muscle tissue varied along time but did not impede the PND post-wash facilitation. Higher doses (20–25 mM) did not increase EDL or SOL neurotransmission. The data suggest a complex mechanism likely dependent on the metabolic/contractile muscle phenotype; muscle fiber types and density/type of ion channels, sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria organization may have profound impact on the levels and isoform expression pattern of Ca2+ regulatory membrane proteins so reflecting regulation of calcium handling and contractile response in different types of muscle. Full article
Open AccessReview Ionic Liquids — Promising but Challenging Solvents for Homogeneous Derivatization of Cellulose
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7458-7502; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067458
Received: 11 May 2012 / Revised: 5 June 2012 / Accepted: 6 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
Cited by 135 | PDF Full-text (1121 KB)
Abstract
In the past decade, ionic liquids (ILs) have received enormous interest as solvents for cellulose. They have been studied intensively for fractionation and biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass, for dissolution of the polysaccharide, for preparation of cellulosic fibers, and in particular as reaction media
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In the past decade, ionic liquids (ILs) have received enormous interest as solvents for cellulose. They have been studied intensively for fractionation and biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass, for dissolution of the polysaccharide, for preparation of cellulosic fibers, and in particular as reaction media for the homogeneous preparation of highly engineered polysaccharide derivatives. ILs show great potential for application on a commercial scale regarding recyclability, high dissolution power, and their broad structural diversity. However, a critical analysis reveals that these promising features are combined with serious drawbacks that need to be addressed in order to utilize ILs for the efficient synthesis of cellulose derivatives. This review presents a comprehensive overview about chemical modification of cellulose in ILs. Difficulties encountered thereby are discussed critically and current as well as future developments in this field of polysaccharide research are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Ionic Liquids)
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Open AccessShort Note An Oxidized Squalene Derivative from Protium subserratum Engl. (Engl.) Growing in Peru
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7451-7457; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067451
Received: 28 May 2012 / Revised: 13 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (966 KB)
Abstract
Protium subserratum (Burseraceae) is a neotropical tree species that is comprised of several habitat-specific ecotypes having distinct defense chemical profiles. A previously unknown triterpene, 25,30-dicarboxy-26,27,28,29-tetraacetoxy-10,11,14,15-tetrahydrosqualene, was isolated from P. subserratum young leaf tissue of one ecotype growing in Peru. The structure of 1
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Protium subserratum (Burseraceae) is a neotropical tree species that is comprised of several habitat-specific ecotypes having distinct defense chemical profiles. A previously unknown triterpene, 25,30-dicarboxy-26,27,28,29-tetraacetoxy-10,11,14,15-tetrahydrosqualene, was isolated from P. subserratum young leaf tissue of one ecotype growing in Peru. The structure of 1 was determined by spectroscopic study, including 1 and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle NIR Spectroscopic Properties of Aqueous Acids Solutions
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7440-7450; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067440
Received: 30 April 2012 / Revised: 27 May 2012 / Accepted: 7 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (174 KB)
Abstract
Acid content is one of the important quality attributes in determining the maturity index of agricultural product, particularly fruits. Despite the fact that much research on the measurement of acidity in fruits through non-destructive spectroscopy analysis at NIR wavelengths between 700 to 1,000
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Acid content is one of the important quality attributes in determining the maturity index of agricultural product, particularly fruits. Despite the fact that much research on the measurement of acidity in fruits through non-destructive spectroscopy analysis at NIR wavelengths between 700 to 1,000 nm has been conducted, the same response towards individual acids is not well known. This paper presents NIR spectroscopy analysis on aqueous citric, tartaric, malic and oxalic solutions through quantitative analysis by selecting a set of wavelengths that can best be used to measure the pH of the solutions. The aquaphotomics study of the acid solutions has generated R2 above 0.9 for the measurement of all acids. The most important wavelengths for pH are located at 918–925 nm and 990–996 nm, while at 975 nm for water. Full article
Open AccessArticle Application of 4D-QSAR Studies to a Series of Raloxifene Analogs and Design of Potential Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7415-7439; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067415
Received: 12 April 2012 / Revised: 4 June 2012 / Accepted: 5 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (753 KB)
Abstract
Four-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (4D-QSAR) analysis was applied on a series of 54 2-arylbenzothiophene derivatives, synthesized by Grese and coworkers, based on raloxifene (an estrogen receptor-alpha antagonist), and evaluated as ERa ligands and as inhibitors of estrogen-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
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Four-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (4D-QSAR) analysis was applied on a series of 54 2-arylbenzothiophene derivatives, synthesized by Grese and coworkers, based on raloxifene (an estrogen receptor-alpha antagonist), and evaluated as ERa ligands and as inhibitors of estrogen-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The conformations of each analogue, sampled from a molecular dynamics simulation, were placed in a grid cell lattice according to three trial alignments, considering two grid cell sizes (1.0 and 2.0 Å). The QSAR equations, generated by a combined scheme of genetic algorithms (GA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression, were evaluated by “leave-one-out” cross-validation, using a training set of 41 compounds. External validation was performed using a test set of 13 compounds. The obtained 4D-QSAR models are in agreement with the proposed mechanism of action for raloxifene. This study allowed a quantitative prediction of compounds’ potency and supported the design of new raloxifene analogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QSAR and Its Applications)
Open AccessArticle A Monoclonal Antibody-Based ELISA for Multiresidue Determination of Avermectins in Milk
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7401-7414; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067401
Received: 23 April 2012 / Revised: 4 June 2012 / Accepted: 5 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (326 KB)
Abstract
Due to the widespread use and potential toxicity of avermectins (AVMs), multi-residue monitoring of AVMs in edible tissues, especially in milk, has become increasingly important. With the aim of developing a broad-selective immunoassay for AVMs, a broad-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) was raised. Based
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Due to the widespread use and potential toxicity of avermectins (AVMs), multi-residue monitoring of AVMs in edible tissues, especially in milk, has become increasingly important. With the aim of developing a broad-selective immunoassay for AVMs, a broad-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) was raised. Based on this Mab, a homologous indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the rapid detection of AVMs in milk was developed. Under the optimized conditions, the IC50 values in assay buffer were estimated to be 3.05 ng/mL for abamectin, 13.10 ng/mL for ivermectin, 38.96 ng/mL for eprinomectin, 61.00 ng/mL for doramectin, 14.38 ng/mL for emamectin benzoate. Detection capability (CCβ) of the ELISA was less than 5 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in milk samples prepared by simple dilution and solvent extraction, respectively. The optimized ELISA was used to quantify AVMs in milk samples spiked at different amounts. The mean recovery and coefficient of variation (CV) were 95.90% and 15.42%, respectively. The Mab-based ELISA achieved a great improvement in AVMs detection. Results proved this broad-selective ELISA would be useful for the multi-residue determination of AVMs in milk without purification process. Full article
Open AccessArticle Application of 2,3-Naphthalenediamine in Labeling Natural Carbohydrates for Capillary Electrophoresis
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7387-7400; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067387
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 14 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1005 KB)
Abstract
Neutral and acidic monosaccharide components in Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide are readily labeled with 2,3-naphthalenediamine, and the resulting saccharide-naphthimidazole (NAIM) derivatives are quantified by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in borate buffer. Using sulfated-α-cyclodextrin as the chiral selector, enantiomers of monosaccharide-NAIMs are resolved on CE in
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Neutral and acidic monosaccharide components in Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide are readily labeled with 2,3-naphthalenediamine, and the resulting saccharide-naphthimidazole (NAIM) derivatives are quantified by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in borate buffer. Using sulfated-α-cyclodextrin as the chiral selector, enantiomers of monosaccharide-NAIMs are resolved on CE in phosphate buffer, allowing a simultaneous determination of the absolute configuration and sugar composition in the mucilage polysaccharide of a medicinal herb Dendrobium huoshanense. Together with the specific enzymatic reactions of various glycoside hydrolases on the NAIM derivatives of glycans, the structures of natural glycans can be deduced from the digestion products identified by CE analysis. Though heparin dissachrides could be successfully derived with the NAIM-labeling method, the heparin derivatives with the same degree of sulfation could not be separated by CE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessCommunication Substituted Benzamides Containing Azaspiro Rings as Upregulators of Apolipoprotein A-I Transcription
Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7379-7386; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067379
Received: 30 March 2012 / Revised: 8 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 14 June 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (178 KB)
Abstract
Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is the principal protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which is generally considered as a potential therapeutic target against atherosclerosis. The understanding of the Apo A-I regulation mechanism has fuelled the development of novel HDL targeted therapeutic approaches.
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Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is the principal protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which is generally considered as a potential therapeutic target against atherosclerosis. The understanding of the Apo A-I regulation mechanism has fuelled the development of novel HDL targeted therapeutic approaches. To identify novel agents that can upregulate Apo A-I expression, we performed a cell-based reporter assay to screen 25,600 small molecules. Based on the dataset obtained from screening, a series of novel analogs of substituted benzamides containing azaspiro rings were assessed for their ability to induce the transcription of the Apo A-I gene, and the structure-activity relationship (SAR) around these analogs was also proposed. The results indicated that the trifluoromethyl substituted benzamide containing an azaspiro ring is a promising backbone for designing Apo A-I transcriptional upregulator and could be viable leads for development of new drugs to prevent and treat atherosclerosis in the future. Full article
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