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Astragalus membranaceus Extract Activates Immune Response in Macrophages via Heparanase
Department of Nephrology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200240, China
School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China
Department of Nephrology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200240, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 April 2012; in revised form: 1 June 2012 / Accepted: 7 June 2012 / Published: 13 June 2012
Abstract: Astragalus membranaceus (AM), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has immunoregulatory properties in many diseases. We investigated the effects and mechanism of Astragalus membranaceus extract (AME) in the macrophage migration and immune response mediator release. The viability of Ana-1 macrophages treated with AME was evaluated by the MTT method. The secretion and mRNA levels of IL-1β and TNF-a were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. Macrophage migration was assayed by transwell assay. The activity of heparanase (HPA) was determined by a heparin-degrading enzyme assay. Our results didn’t show any toxicity of AME in macrophages. AME increased the activity of HPA, cell migration, mRNA levels and secretion of IL-1β and TNF-a in macrophages. Pretreatment with anti-HPA antibody reduced cell migration, secretion of IL-1β and TNF-a did not change the mRNA levels of IL-1β and TNF-a significantly in AME-treated macrophages. This suggests that AME may increase the release of immune response mediator and cell migration via HPA to activate immune response in macrophages.
Keywords: Astragalus membranaceus extract; macrophage; heparanase; migration; immune response mediator; immune response
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Qin, Q.; Niu, J.; Wang, Z.; Xu, W.; Qiao, Z.; Gu, Y. Astragalus membranaceus Extract Activates Immune Response in Macrophages via Heparanase. Molecules 2012, 17, 7232-7240.
Qin Q, Niu J, Wang Z, Xu W, Qiao Z, Gu Y. Astragalus membranaceus Extract Activates Immune Response in Macrophages via Heparanase. Molecules. 2012; 17(6):7232-7240.
Qin, Qiaojing; Niu, Jianying; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xu, Wangjie; Qiao, Zhongdong; Gu, Yong. 2012. "Astragalus membranaceus Extract Activates Immune Response in Macrophages via Heparanase." Molecules 17, no. 6: 7232-7240.