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Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7241-7254; doi:10.3390/molecules17067241

Aqueous Extracts of the Edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata are Protective Against H2O2-Induced DNA Damage, Growth Inhibition, and Cell Cycle Arrest

1
Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan
2
Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3
Institute of Biomedical Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
4
Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Center of Excellence for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
5
Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 April 2012 / Revised: 5 June 2012 / Accepted: 7 June 2012 / Published: 13 June 2012
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Abstract

Potential antioxidant properties of an aqueous extract of the edible red seaweed Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT) against oxidative DNA damage were evaluated. The AEGT revealed several antioxidant molecules, including phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid. In a cell-free assay, the extract exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity that significantly reduced H2O2-induced plasmid DNA breaks in a dose-response manner (P < 0.001). The AEGT also suppressed H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage in H1299 cells by reducing the percentage of damaged DNA in a dose-response manner (P < 0.001) as measured by a modified alkaline comet-nuclear extract (comet-NE) assay. The MTT assay results showed that AEGT confers significant protection against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and that AEGT itself is not cytotoxic (P < 0.001). Moreover, H2O2-induced cell cycle G2/M arrest was significantly released when cells were co-treated with different concentrations of AEGT (P < 0.001). Taken together, these findings suggest that edible red algae Gracilaria water extract can prevent H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage and its related cellular responses.
Keywords: DNA damage; antioxidant; comet assay; red algae; cell cycle arrest DNA damage; antioxidant; comet assay; red algae; cell cycle arrest
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, J.-I.; Yeh, C.-C.; Lee, J.-C.; Yi, S.-C.; Huang, H.-W.; Tseng, C.-N.; Chang, H.-W. Aqueous Extracts of the Edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata are Protective Against H2O2-Induced DNA Damage, Growth Inhibition, and Cell Cycle Arrest. Molecules 2012, 17, 7241-7254.

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