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Molecules 2012, 17(6), 7241-7254; doi:10.3390/molecules17067241
Article

Aqueous Extracts of the Edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata are Protective Against H2O2-Induced DNA Damage, Growth Inhibition, and Cell Cycle Arrest

1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4,*  and 4,5,*
Received: 16 April 2012 / Revised: 5 June 2012 / Accepted: 7 June 2012 / Published: 13 June 2012
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Abstract

Potential antioxidant properties of an aqueous extract of the edible red seaweed Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT) against oxidative DNA damage were evaluated. The AEGT revealed several antioxidant molecules, including phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid. In a cell-free assay, the extract exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity that significantly reduced H2O2-induced plasmid DNA breaks in a dose-response manner (P < 0.001). The AEGT also suppressed H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage in H1299 cells by reducing the percentage of damaged DNA in a dose-response manner (P < 0.001) as measured by a modified alkaline comet-nuclear extract (comet-NE) assay. The MTT assay results showed that AEGT confers significant protection against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and that AEGT itself is not cytotoxic (P < 0.001). Moreover, H2O2-induced cell cycle G2/M arrest was significantly released when cells were co-treated with different concentrations of AEGT (P < 0.001). Taken together, these findings suggest that edible red algae Gracilaria water extract can prevent H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage and its related cellular responses.
Keywords: DNA damage; antioxidant; comet assay; red algae; cell cycle arrest DNA damage; antioxidant; comet assay; red algae; cell cycle arrest
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Yang, J.-I.; Yeh, C.-C.; Lee, J.-C.; Yi, S.-C.; Huang, H.-W.; Tseng, C.-N.; Chang, H.-W. Aqueous Extracts of the Edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata are Protective Against H2O2-Induced DNA Damage, Growth Inhibition, and Cell Cycle Arrest. Molecules 2012, 17, 7241-7254.

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