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Water 2017, 9(4), 273; doi:10.3390/w9040273

The Impact of Integrated Aquifer Storage and Recovery and Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis (ASRRO) on a Coastal Groundwater System

KWR Watercycle Research Institute, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein, The Netherlands
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Academic Editor: Niels Hartog
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)

Abstract

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) of local, freshwater surpluses is a potential solution for freshwater supply in coastal areas, as is brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) of relatively shallow groundwater in combination with deeper membrane concentrate disposal. A more sustainable and reliable freshwater supply may be achieved by combining both techniques in one ASRRO system using multiple partially penetrating wells (MPPW). The impact of widespread use of ASRRO on a coastal groundwater system was limited based on regional groundwater modelling but it was shown that ASRRO decreased the average chloride concentration with respect to the autonomous scenario and the use of BWRO. ASRRO was successful in mitigating the local negative impact (saltwater plume formation) caused by the deep disposal of membrane concentrate during BWRO. The positive impacts of ASRRO with respect to BWRO were observed in the aquifer targeted for ASR and brackish water abstraction (Aquifer 1), but foremost in the deeper aquifer targeted for membrane concentrate disposal (Aquifer 2). The formation of a horizontal freshwater barrier was found at the top of both aquifers, reducing saline seepage. The disposal of relatively fresh concentrate in Aquifer 2 led to brackish water outflow towards the sea. The net abstraction in Aquifer 1 enforced saltwater intrusion, especially when BWRO was applied. The conclusion of this study is that ASRRO can provide a sustainable alternative for BWRO. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquifer storage and recovery; ASR; ASRRO; BWRO; membrane concentrate disposal; ASR performance; coastal groundwater system; short-circuiting; freshwater barrier aquifer storage and recovery; ASR; ASRRO; BWRO; membrane concentrate disposal; ASR performance; coastal groundwater system; short-circuiting; freshwater barrier
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ros, S.E.M.; Zuurbier, K.G. The Impact of Integrated Aquifer Storage and Recovery and Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis (ASRRO) on a Coastal Groundwater System. Water 2017, 9, 273.

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