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Water 2017, 9(4), 263; doi:10.3390/w9040263

Evaluation of Clogging during Sand-Filtered Surface Water Injection for Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR): Pilot Experiment in the Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain)

1
Cetaqua, Water Technology Center, Carretera d’Esplugues 75, Cornellà de Llobregat, 08940 Barcelona, Spain
2
Aigües de Barcelona, Empresa Metropolitana de Gestió del Cicle Integral de l’Aigua, S.A., General Batet, 1-7, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Niels Hartog and Pieter J. Stuyfzand
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 April 2017 / Published: 8 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3312 KB, uploaded 14 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

The aquifer storage and recovery system of Sant Joan Despí (SJD) in the Llobregat Basin (Barcelona, Spain) has been injecting potable water since its construction in 1969. In order to increase the environmental and economic sustainability of the process, the substitution of potable water by sand-filtered surface water (SFSW) has been considered. This study aims at assessing the clogging potential of SFSW by reproducing the aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) system in a column-type pilot system. Developed clogging of a metallic screen simulating a well screen in the ASR was observed by direct visualization and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and was measured by the pilot column head loss and by the analysis of extracellular polymeric substances formed. The results show that although there is a detectable clogging formation, the experiment could run with no flow limitation, suggesting that SFSW could be a feasible candidate water for aquifer injection in a real well demonstration phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquifer storage and recovery; Llobregat aquifer; clogging; column experiment aquifer storage and recovery; Llobregat aquifer; clogging; column experiment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Camprovin, P.; Hernández, M.; Fernández, S.; Martín-Alonso, J.; Galofré, B.; Mesa, J. Evaluation of Clogging during Sand-Filtered Surface Water Injection for Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR): Pilot Experiment in the Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain). Water 2017, 9, 263.

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