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Water 2017, 9(2), 138; doi:10.3390/w9020138

Raw Water Quality and Pretreatment in Managed Aquifer Recharge for Drinking Water Production in Finland

1
Tavase Ltd., Hatanpään valtatie 26, FIN‐33100 Tampere, Finland
2
Kymenlaakso W Ltd., Malminginkatu 16, FIN‐48600 Kotka, Finland
3
Tampere Region Central Wastewater Treatment Plant Ltd., Hatanpään valtatie 26, FIN‐33100 Tampere, Finland
4
Tuusula Region Water Utility, Kirkkotie 49, FIN‐04310 Tuusula, Finland
5
Jyväskylä Energy Ltd., P.O. Box 4, FIN‐40101 Jyväskylä, Finland
6
Turku Region Water Ltd., Maariankatu 1, FIN‐20100 Turku, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Abstract

The main objective of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in Finland is the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from surface waters. A typical MAR procedure consists of the infiltration of surface water into a Quaternary glaciofluvial esker with subsequent withdrawal of the MAR treated water from wells a few hundred meters downstream. The infiltrated water should have a residence time of at least approximately one month before withdrawal to provide sufficient time for the subsurface processes needed to break down or remove humic substances. Most of the Finnish MAR plants do not have pretreatment and raw water is infiltrated directly into the soil. The objectives of this paper are to present MAR experiences and to discuss the need for and choice of pretreatment. Data from basin, sprinkling, and well infiltration processes are presented. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations of the raw waters presented here varied from 6.5 to 11 mg/L and after MAR the TOC concentrations of the abstracted waters were approximately 2 mg/L. The overall reduction of organic matter in the treatment (with or without pretreatment) was 70%-85%. Mechanical pretreatment can be used for clogging prevention. Turbidity of the Finnish lakes used as raw water does not necessitate pretreatment in basin and sprinkling infiltration, however, pretreatment in well infiltration needs to be judged separately. River waters may have high turbidity requiring pretreatment. Biodegradation of NOM in the saturated groundwater zone consumes dissolved oxygen. Thus, a high NOM concentration may create conditions for dissolution of iron and manganese from the soil. These conditions may be avoided by the addition of chemical pretreatment. Raw waters with TOC content up to at least approximately 8 mg/L were infiltrated without any considerations of chemical pretreatment, which should be evaluated based on local conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water; Finland; managed aquifer recharge; pretreatment; water quality drinking water; Finland; managed aquifer recharge; pretreatment; water quality
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Jokela, P.; Eskola, T.; Heinonen, T.; Tanttu, U.; Tyrväinen, J.; Artimo, A. Raw Water Quality and Pretreatment in Managed Aquifer Recharge for Drinking Water Production in Finland. Water 2017, 9, 138.

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