Next Article in Journal
Including A-Priori Assessment of Actual Evapotranspiration for Green Roof Daily Scale Hydrological Modelling
Next Article in Special Issue
Controlling the Formation of the Reaction Zone around an Injection Well during Subsurface Iron Removal
Previous Article in Journal
Comparison of Multi-Criteria Decision Support Methods for Integrated Rehabilitation Prioritization
Previous Article in Special Issue
Design and Testing of Recharge Wells in a Coastal Aquifer: Summary of Field Scale Pilot Tests
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2017, 9(2), 73; doi:10.3390/w9020073

The Use of Stable Water Isotopes as Tracers in Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) and in Regional Water Systems

1
Mekorot, National Water Company, Tel Aviv 6713402, Israel
2
BRGM, French Geological Survey, Orleans, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pieter J. Stuyfzand
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3503 KB, uploaded 24 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

This study examines the feasibility of tracing and quantifying the progress of different water sources along the water–effluent–SAT (Soil Aquifer Treatment) chain using 2H and 18O isotopes. The research was conducted at the Dan Region Reclamation Plant (Shafdan), which reclaims ~135 MCM/year of effluent for irrigation. Water samples representing different stages along the chain were taken in two surveys during 2010–2011 and 2014. δ18O and δ2H values were used for mixing ratios (MR) calculations, and compared with calculated MRs using chloride and carbamazepine concentrations. The results showed a relative enrichment of 18O and 2H in the Israeli water system compared to the regional groundwater, due to the addition of massive quantities of desalinated water. A linear correlation for δ2H vs. δ18O with a slope of 4.5 was found for the different freshwater sources and their mixing products, suggesting evaporation-mixing effects. MR values indicate on the spreading of new type of effluent originating from desalinated water in the aquifer. A dilution model explains the isotopic compositions in the water system and of the Shafdan effluents. Water isotopes have an advantage over other tracers, due to the ability to predict their ratio in the supply system and in the effluent, based on mass balance calculations and on knowledge of water supply volumes. View Full-Text
Keywords: stable water isotopes; SAT; desalination; effluent stable water isotopes; SAT; desalination; effluent
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Negev, I.; Guttman, J.; Kloppmann, W. The Use of Stable Water Isotopes as Tracers in Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) and in Regional Water Systems. Water 2017, 9, 73.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top