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Viruses 2012, 4(11), 3069-3089; doi:10.3390/v4113069
Article

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Viruses are Differentially Affected by Parasitoids Depending on the Mode of Transmission

1
, 1
, 2
 and 1,*
Received: 1 October 2012; in revised form: 18 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 12 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
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Abstract: Relationships between agents in multitrophic systems are complex and very specific. Insect-transmitted plant viruses are completely dependent on the behaviour and distribution patterns of their vectors. The presence of natural enemies may directly affect aphid behaviour and spread of plant viruses, as the escape response of aphids might cause a potential risk for virus dispersal. The spatio-temporal dynamics of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), transmitted by Aphis gossypii in a non-persistent and persistent manner, respectively, were evaluated at short and long term in the presence and absence of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani. SADIE methodology was used to study the distribution patterns of both the virus and its vector, and their degree of association. Results suggested that parasitoids promoted aphid dispersion at short term, which enhanced CMV spread, though consequences of parasitism suggest potential benefits for disease control at long term. Furthermore, A. colemani significantly limited the spread and incidence of the persistent virus CABYV at long term. The impact of aphid parasitoids on the dispersal of plant viruses with different transmission modes is discussed.
Keywords: tritrophic interactions; biological control; Aphis gossypii; Aphidius colemani; CMV; CABYV; virus epidemiology; spatial dynamics; SADIE tritrophic interactions; biological control; Aphis gossypii; Aphidius colemani; CMV; CABYV; virus epidemiology; spatial dynamics; SADIE
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dáder, B.; Moreno, A.; Viñuela, E.; Fereres, A. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Viruses are Differentially Affected by Parasitoids Depending on the Mode of Transmission. Viruses 2012, 4, 3069-3089.

AMA Style

Dáder B, Moreno A, Viñuela E, Fereres A. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Viruses are Differentially Affected by Parasitoids Depending on the Mode of Transmission. Viruses. 2012; 4(11):3069-3089.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dáder, Beatriz; Moreno, Aránzazu; Viñuela, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto. 2012. "Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Viruses are Differentially Affected by Parasitoids Depending on the Mode of Transmission." Viruses 4, no. 11: 3069-3089.


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