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Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands
School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, P.O. Box Wits, Johannesburg, 2050, South Africa
Mikocheni Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 6226, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Private Bag X4, Sandringham, Johannesburg, 2131, South Africa
South African Sugarcane Research Institute, 170 Flanders Drive, Private Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300, South Africa
The Institute of Agricultural Research of Mozambique, Av. Das FPLM, No. 269 C.P. 3658, Maputo, Mozambique
Biotechnology Center, Eduardo Mondlane University, Praca 25 de Junho. Caixa, Potal 257, Maputo, Mozambique
Crop Protection and Diagnostic Center, ARC-Roodeplaat-VOPI, Private Bag X293, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa
Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa
ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute and University of Pretoria, Private Bag X134, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa
Department of Biochemistry, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2012; in revised form: 4 September 2012 / Accepted: 5 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
Abstract: The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component) or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B), many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-as) or betasatellites (DNA-βs). Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs) DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world.
Keywords: Geminiviruses; sweepoviruses; dicotyledenous crops; southern Africa; eastern Africa; south-west Indian Oceans; diversity; recombination
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Rey, M.E.C.; Ndunguru, J.; Berrie, L.C.; Paximadis, M.; Berry, S.; Cossa, N.; Nuaila, V.N.; Mabasa, K.G.; Abraham, N.; Rybicki, E.P.; Martin, D.; Pietersen, G.; Esterhuizen, L.L. Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands. Viruses 2012, 4, 1753-1791.
Rey MEC, Ndunguru J, Berrie LC, Paximadis M, Berry S, Cossa N, Nuaila VN, Mabasa KG, Abraham N, Rybicki EP, Martin D, Pietersen G, Esterhuizen LL. Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands. Viruses. 2012; 4(9):1753-1791.
Rey, Marie E. C.; Ndunguru, Joseph; Berrie, Leigh C.; Paximadis, Maria; Berry, Shaun; Cossa, Nurbibi; Nuaila, Valter N.; Mabasa, Kenneth G.; Abraham, Natasha; Rybicki, Edward P.; Martin, Darren; Pietersen, Gerhard; Esterhuizen, Lindy L. 2012. "Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands." Viruses 4, no. 9: 1753-1791.