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Genetic Algorithm for the Design of Electro-Mechanical Sigma Delta Modulator MEMS Sensors
School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2011; in revised form: 19 August 2011 / Accepted: 22 September 2011 / Published: 27 September 2011
Abstract: This paper describes a novel design methodology using non-linear models for complex closed loop electro-mechanical sigma-delta modulators (EMΣΔM) that is based on genetic algorithms and statistical variation analysis. The proposed methodology is capable of quickly and efficiently designing high performance, high order, closed loop, near-optimal systems that are robust to sensor fabrication tolerances and electronic component variation. The use of full non-linear system models allows significant higher order non-ideal effects to be taken into account, improving accuracy and confidence in the results. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach, two design examples are presented including a 5th order low-pass EMΣΔM for a MEMS accelerometer, and a 6th order band-pass EMΣΔM for the sense mode of a MEMS gyroscope. Each example was designed using the system in less than one day, with very little manual intervention. The strength of the approach is verified by SNR performances of 109.2 dB and 92.4 dB for the low-pass and band-pass system respectively, coupled with excellent immunities to fabrication tolerances and parameter mismatch.
Keywords: genetic algorithm (GA); sigma delta modulator (ΣΔM); micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS); gyroscope; accelerometer
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wilcock, R.; Kraft, M. Genetic Algorithm for the Design of Electro-Mechanical Sigma Delta Modulator MEMS Sensors. Sensors 2011, 11, 9217-9232.
Wilcock R, Kraft M. Genetic Algorithm for the Design of Electro-Mechanical Sigma Delta Modulator MEMS Sensors. Sensors. 2011; 11(10):9217-9232.
Wilcock, Reuben; Kraft, Michael. 2011. "Genetic Algorithm for the Design of Electro-Mechanical Sigma Delta Modulator MEMS Sensors." Sensors 11, no. 10: 9217-9232.