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Special Issue "Nanobiosensing for Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Huangxian Ju

Director, State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +86-25-83593593
Interests: immunosensors; electrochemical sensors; chemically modified electrodes; biosensors; electroanalysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since Clark and Lyons created the first biosensor, a glucose amperometric sensor, in 1960s, biosensing fields have attracted considerable interests. Biosensing based on nanomaterials has been one of the hottest topics in nanotechnology and nanoscience. The unique properties of nanomaterials offer excellent platforms as electronic and optical signal transduction to design a new generation of biosensing devices. Thus, nanobiosensing opens up novel concepts for basic research and new tools for ultra-sensitive biosensing in clinical, environmental, and industrial applications. This Special Issue aims to bring together articles discussing innovative applications of biosensors and nanobiosensing, and to share the benefit of new concepts and detection strategies in the area of biosensing based on nanomaterials, which are employed in multiple fields with a broad audience, such as the research and practice of biosensing, based on various nanomaterials, biomedical, military, industrial and clinical applications.

Prof. Dr. Huangxian Ju
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biosensors
  • electrochemical biosensors
  • nanobiosensing
  • molecular recogition
  • imaging
  • analysis
  • nanobiosensing devices
  • nanoprobe

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication Real-Time Sensing of O-Phenylenediamine Oxidation on Gold Nanoparticles
Sensors 2017, 17(3), 530; doi:10.3390/s17030530
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1889 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Real-time monitoring of chemical reactions is still challenging as well as important to study reaction mechanisms and reaction kinetics. Herein, we demonstrated the real-time monitoring of o-phenylenediamine (OPD) oxidation on the surface of gold nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The oxidation mechanism
[...] Read more.
Real-time monitoring of chemical reactions is still challenging as well as important to study reaction mechanisms and reaction kinetics. Herein, we demonstrated the real-time monitoring of o-phenylenediamine (OPD) oxidation on the surface of gold nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The oxidation mechanism and the reaction kinetics were investigated on the basis of the SERS spectrum variation and the related density functionalized theory calculation. It was shown that the oxidation of OPD in the presence of copper ions was a two-step process of the deprotonation of the amino group on the aromatic rings and the rearrangement of the electron cloud to a π-conjugated system, which may open a new door to comprehensively understand the reaction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle In Situ Real-Time Monitoring of Glutamate and Electrophysiology from Cortex to Hippocampus in Mice Based on a Microelectrode Array
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 61; doi:10.3390/s17010061
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 30 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2077 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changes in the structure and function of the hippocampus contribute to epilepsy, schizophrenia and other neurological or mental disorders of the brain. Since the function of the hippocampus depends heavily on the glutamate (Glu) signaling pathways, in situ real-time detection of Glu neurotransmitter
[...] Read more.
Changes in the structure and function of the hippocampus contribute to epilepsy, schizophrenia and other neurological or mental disorders of the brain. Since the function of the hippocampus depends heavily on the glutamate (Glu) signaling pathways, in situ real-time detection of Glu neurotransmitter release and electrophysiological signals in hippocampus is of great significance. To achieve the dual-mode detection in mouse hippocampus in vivo, a 16-channel implantable microelectrode array (MEA) was fabricated by micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology. Twelve microelectrode sites were modified with platinum black for electrophysiological recording and four sites were modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx) and 1,3-phenylenediamine (mPD) for selective electrochemical detection of Glu. The MEA was implanted from cortex to hippocampus in mouse brain for in situ real-time monitoring of Glu and electrophysiological signals. It was found that the Glu concentration in hippocampus was roughly 50 μM higher than that in the cortex, and the firing rate of concurrently recorded spikes declined from 6.32 ± 4.35 spikes/s in cortex to 0.09 ± 0.06 spikes/s in hippocampus. The present results demonstrated that the dual-mode MEA probe was capable in neurological detections in vivo with high spatial resolution and dynamical response, which lays the foundation for further pathology studies in the hippocampus of mouse models with nervous or mental disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Nanostructured Tip-Shaped Biosensors: Application of Six Sigma Approach for Enhanced Manufacturing
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 17; doi:10.3390/s17010017
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 10 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
PDF Full-text (6230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanostructured tip-shaped biosensors have drawn attention for biomolecule detection as they are promising for highly sensitive and specific detection of a target analyte. Using a nanostructured tip, the sensitivity is increased to identify individual molecules because of the high aspect ratio structure. Various
[...] Read more.
Nanostructured tip-shaped biosensors have drawn attention for biomolecule detection as they are promising for highly sensitive and specific detection of a target analyte. Using a nanostructured tip, the sensitivity is increased to identify individual molecules because of the high aspect ratio structure. Various detection methods, such as electrochemistry, fluorescence microcopy, and Raman spectroscopy, have been attempted to enhance the sensitivity and the specificity. Due to the confined path of electrons, electrochemical measurement using a nanotip enables the detection of single molecules. When an electric field is combined with capillary action and fluid flow, target molecules can be effectively concentrated onto a nanotip surface for detection. To enhance the concentration efficacy, a dendritic nanotip rather than a single tip could be used to detect target analytes, such as nanoparticles, cells, and DNA. However, reproducible fabrication with relation to specific detection remains a challenge due to the instability of a manufacturing method, resulting in inconsistent shape. In this paper, nanostructured biosensors are reviewed with our experimental results using dendritic nanotips for sequence specific detection of DNA. By the aid of the Six Sigma approach, the fabrication yield of dendritic nanotips increases from 20.0% to 86.6%. Using the nanotips, DNA is concentrated and detected in a sequence specific way with the detection limit equivalent to 1000 CFU/mL. The pros and cons of a nanotip biosensor are evaluated in conjunction with future prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Sensitive and Label-Free Pb(II) Fluorescence Sensor Based on a DNAzyme Controlled G-Quadruplex/Thioflavin T Conformation
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2155; doi:10.3390/s16122155
Received: 3 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
PDF Full-text (2787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pb(II) can cause serious damaging effects to human health, and thus, the study of Pb2+ detection methods to sensitively and selectively monitor Pb(II) pollution has significant importance. In this work, we have developed a label-free fluorescence sensing strategy based on a Pb(II)
[...] Read more.
Pb(II) can cause serious damaging effects to human health, and thus, the study of Pb2+ detection methods to sensitively and selectively monitor Pb(II) pollution has significant importance. In this work, we have developed a label-free fluorescence sensing strategy based on a Pb(II) DNAzyme cleavage and the ThT/G-quadruplex complex. In the presence of Pb(II), a G-rich tail was cut and released from the substrate strand, which then would form a G-quadruplex structure by combination with ThT dye. The fluorescence signal increase was then measured for sensitive Pb(II) quantification with a limit of detection of 0.06 nM. Our sensor also demonstrated high selectivity against six different metal ions, which is very important for the analysis of complex samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Lateral Flow Assay Based on Size-Controlled Gold Nanoparticles for Detection of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2154; doi:10.3390/s16122154
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (11108 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we developed lateral flow assay (LFA) biosensors for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens using well-controlled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). To enhance colorimetric signals, a seeded growth method was used for the preparation of size-controlled AuNPs with a narrow size
[...] Read more.
In this study, we developed lateral flow assay (LFA) biosensors for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens using well-controlled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). To enhance colorimetric signals, a seeded growth method was used for the preparation of size-controlled AuNPs with a narrow size distribution. Different sizes of AuNPs in the range of 342–137.8 nm were conjugated with antibodies and then optimized for the efficient detection of LFA biosensors. The conjugation stability was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy of AuNP dispersion at various pH values and concentrations of antibody. Based on optimized conjugation conditions, the use of 42.7 ± 0.8 nm AuNPs exhibited superior performance for the detection of LFAs relative to other sizes of AuNPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of a Horizontal and a Vertical Large Surface Area Nanogap Electrochemical Sensor
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2128; doi:10.3390/s16122128
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
PDF Full-text (4759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanogap sensors have a wide range of applications as they can provide accurate direct detection of biomolecules through impedimetric or amperometric signals. Signal response from nanogap sensors is dependent on both the electrode spacing and surface area. However, creating large surface area nanogap
[...] Read more.
Nanogap sensors have a wide range of applications as they can provide accurate direct detection of biomolecules through impedimetric or amperometric signals. Signal response from nanogap sensors is dependent on both the electrode spacing and surface area. However, creating large surface area nanogap sensors presents several challenges during fabrication. We show two different approaches to achieve both horizontal and vertical coplanar nanogap geometries. In the first method we use electron-beam lithography (EBL) to pattern an 11 mm long serpentine nanogap (215 nm) between two electrodes. For the second method we use inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) reactive ion etching (RIE) to create a channel in a silicon substrate, optically pattern a buried 1.0 mm × 1.5 mm electrode before anodically bonding a second identical electrode, patterned on glass, directly above. The devices have a wide range of applicability in different sensing techniques with the large area nanogaps presenting advantages over other devices of the same family. As a case study we explore the detection of peptide nucleic acid (PNA)−DNA binding events using dielectric spectroscopy with the horizontal coplanar device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Potentiometric Aptasensing of Vibrio alginolyticus Based on DNA Nanostructure-Modified Magnetic Beads
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2052; doi:10.3390/s16122052
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A potentiometric aptasensing assay that couples the DNA nanostructure-modified magnetic beads with a solid-contact polycation-sensitive membrane electrode for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus is herein described. The DNA nanostructure-modified magnetic beads are used for amplification of the potential response and elimination of the
[...] Read more.
A potentiometric aptasensing assay that couples the DNA nanostructure-modified magnetic beads with a solid-contact polycation-sensitive membrane electrode for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus is herein described. The DNA nanostructure-modified magnetic beads are used for amplification of the potential response and elimination of the interfering effect from a complex sample matrix. The solid-contact polycation-sensitive membrane electrode using protamine as an indicator is employed to chronopotentiometrically detect the change in the charge or DNA concentration on the magnetic beads, which is induced by the interaction between Vibrio alginolyticus and the aptamer on the DNA nanostructures. The present potentiometric aptasensing method shows a linear range of 10–100 CFU mL−1 with a detection limit of 10 CFU mL−1, and a good specificity for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus. This proposed strategy can be used for the detection of other microorganisms by changing the aptamers in the DNA nanostructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Optical Aptamer Probes of Fluorescent Imaging to Rapid Monitoring of Circulating Tumor Cell
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1909; doi:10.3390/s16111909
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
PDF Full-text (2729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fluorescence detecting of exogenous EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) or muc1 (mucin1) expression correlated to cancer metastasis using nanoparticles provides pivotal information on CTC (circulating tumor cell) occurrence in a noninvasive tool. In this study, we study a new skill to detect extracellular
[...] Read more.
Fluorescence detecting of exogenous EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) or muc1 (mucin1) expression correlated to cancer metastasis using nanoparticles provides pivotal information on CTC (circulating tumor cell) occurrence in a noninvasive tool. In this study, we study a new skill to detect extracellular EpCAM/muc1 using quantum dot-based aptamer beacon (QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB (aptamer linker beacon). The QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB was designed using QDs (quantum dots) and probe. The EpCAM/muc1-targeting aptamer contains a Ep-CAM/muc1 binding sequence and BHQ1 (black hole quencher 1) or BHQ2 (black hole quencher2). In the absence of target EpCAM/muc1, the QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB forms a partial duplex loop-like aptamer beacon and remained in quenched state because the BHQ1/2 quenches the fluorescence signal-on of the QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB. The binding of EpCAM/muc1 of CTC to the EpCAM/muc1 binding aptamer sequence of the EpCAM/muc1-targeting oligonucleotide triggered the dissociation of the BHQ1/2 quencher and subsequent signal-on of a green/red fluorescence signal. Furthermore, acute inflammation was stimulated by trigger such as caerulein in vivo, which resulted in increased fluorescent signal of the cy5.5-EpCAM/muc1 ALB during cancer metastasis due to exogenous expression of EpCAM/muc1 in Panc02-implanted mouse model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Highly Sensitive and Practical Detection of Plant Viruses via Electrical Impedance of Droplets on Textured Silicon-Based Devices
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1946; doi:10.3390/s16111946
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
PDF Full-text (3169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Early diagnosis of plant virus infections before the disease symptoms appearance may represent a significant benefit in limiting disease spread by a prompt application of appropriate containment steps. We propose a label-free procedure applied on a device structure where the electrical signal transduction
[...] Read more.
Early diagnosis of plant virus infections before the disease symptoms appearance may represent a significant benefit in limiting disease spread by a prompt application of appropriate containment steps. We propose a label-free procedure applied on a device structure where the electrical signal transduction is evaluated via impedance spectroscopy techniques. The device consists of a droplet suspension embedding two representative purified plant viruses i.e., Tomato mosaic virus and Turnip yellow mosaic virus, put in contact with a highly hydrophobic plasma textured silicon surface. Results show a high sensitivity of the system towards the virus particles with an interestingly low detection limit, from tens to hundreds of attomolar corresponding to pg/mL of sap, which refers, in the infection time-scale, to a concentration of virus particles in still-symptomless plants. Such a threshold limit, together with an envisaged engineering of an easily manageable device, compared to more sophisticated apparatuses, may contribute in simplifying the in-field plant virus diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Novel N-Doped Carbon Dots/β-Cyclodextrin Nanocomposites for Enantioselective Recognition of Tryptophan Enantiomers
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1874; doi:10.3390/s16111874
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4078 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Based on N-doped carbon dots/β-cyclodextrin nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrodes (N-CDs/β-CD/GCE), an effective electrochemical sensor for enantioselective recognition of tryptophan (Trp) enantiomers was developed by differential pulse voltammograms (DPVs). Fluorescent N-CDs were synthesized through a hydrothermal method and characterized by spectroscopic approaches. The
[...] Read more.
Based on N-doped carbon dots/β-cyclodextrin nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrodes (N-CDs/β-CD/GCE), an effective electrochemical sensor for enantioselective recognition of tryptophan (Trp) enantiomers was developed by differential pulse voltammograms (DPVs). Fluorescent N-CDs were synthesized through a hydrothermal method and characterized by spectroscopic approaches. The N-CDs/β-CD nanocomposites were efficiently electrodeposited on the surface of GCE through C–N bond formation between N-CDs and electrode. The obtained N-CDs/β-CD/GCE was characterized by multispectroscopic and electrochemical methods. Such N-CDs/β-CD/GCE generated a significantly lower Ip and more negative Ep in the presence of l-Trp in DPVs, which was used for the enantioselective recognition of Trp enantiomers. The N-CDs/β-CD nanocomposites showed different binding constants for tryptophan enantiomers, and they further selectively bonded with l-Trp to form inclusion complexes. This N-CDs/β-CD/GCE combined advantages of N-CDs with strong C–N binding ability and β-CD with specific recognition of Trp enantiomers to fabricate a novel sensing platform for enantioselective recognition of Trp enantiomers. This strategy provided the possibility of using a nanostructured sensor to discriminate the chiral molecules in bio-electroanalytical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Aptasensor for Myoglobin-Specific Recognition Based on Porphyrin Functionalized Graphene-Conjugated Gold Nanocomposites
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1803; doi:10.3390/s16111803
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 22 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8982 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, a novel electrochemical aptasensor was developed for sensitive and selective detection of myoglobin based on meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin-functionalized graphene-conjugated gold nanoparticles (TCPP–Gr/AuNPs). Due to its good electric conductivity, large specific surface area, and excellent mechanical properties, TCPP–Gr/AuNPs can act as
[...] Read more.
In this work, a novel electrochemical aptasensor was developed for sensitive and selective detection of myoglobin based on meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin-functionalized graphene-conjugated gold nanoparticles (TCPP–Gr/AuNPs). Due to its good electric conductivity, large specific surface area, and excellent mechanical properties, TCPP–Gr/AuNPs can act as an enhanced material for the electrochemical detection of myoglobin. Meanwhile, it provides an effective matrix for immobilizing myoglobin-binding aptamer (MbBA). The electrochemical aptasensor has a sensitive response to myoglobin in a linear range from 2.0 × 10−11 M to 7.7 × 10−7 M with a detection limit of 6.7 × 10−12 M (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the method has the merits of high sensitivity, low price, and high specificity. Our work will supply new horizons for the diagnostic applications of graphene-based materials in biomedicine and biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor Based on In Situ Reduction of Ni/NiO-Graphene Nanocomposite
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1791; doi:10.3390/s16111791
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ni/NiO nanoflower modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite (Ni/NiO-rGO) was introduced to screen printed electrode (SPE) for the construction of a nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor. The Ni/NiO-rGO nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ reduction process. Graphene oxide (GO) hybrid Nafion sheets first
[...] Read more.
Ni/NiO nanoflower modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite (Ni/NiO-rGO) was introduced to screen printed electrode (SPE) for the construction of a nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor. The Ni/NiO-rGO nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ reduction process. Graphene oxide (GO) hybrid Nafion sheets first chemical adsorbed Ni ions and assembled on the SPE. Subsequently, GO and Ni ions were reduced by hydrazine hydrate. The electrochemical properties of such a Ni/NiO-rGO modified SPE were carefully investigated. It showed a high activity for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium. The proposed nonenzymatic sensor can be utilized for quantification of glucose with a wide linear range from 29.9 μM to 6.44 mM (R = 0.9937) with a low detection limit of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3) and a high sensitivity of 1997 μA/mM∙cm−2. It also exhibited good reproducibility as well as high selectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Graphene Oxide-Based Fluorescent Method for the Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1699; doi:10.3390/s16101699
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2004 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been regarded as a biomarker for the diagnosis of pregnancy and some cancers. Because the currently used methods (e.g., disposable Point of Care Testing (POCT) device) for hCG detection require the use of many less stable antibodies, simple
[...] Read more.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been regarded as a biomarker for the diagnosis of pregnancy and some cancers. Because the currently used methods (e.g., disposable Point of Care Testing (POCT) device) for hCG detection require the use of many less stable antibodies, simple and cost-effective methods for the sensitive and selective detection of hCG have always been desired. In this work, we have developed a graphene oxide (GO)-based fluorescent platform for the detection of hCG using a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled hCG-specific binding peptide aptamer (denoted as FITC-PPLRINRHILTR) as the probe, which can be manufactured cheaply and consistently. Specifically, FITC-PPLRINRHILTR adsorbed onto the surface of GO via electrostatic interaction showed a poor fluorescence signal. The specific binding of hCG to FITC-PPLRINRHILTR resulted in the release of the peptide from the GO surface. As a result, an enhanced fluorescence signal was observed. The fluorescence intensity was directly proportional to the hCG concentration in the range of 0.05–20 IU/mL. The detection limit was found to be 20 mIU/mL. The amenability of the strategy to hCG analysis in biological fluids was demonstrated by assaying hCG in the urine samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV)
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1674; doi:10.3390/s16101674
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
PDF Full-text (7300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zr(IV) can form phosphate and Zr(IV) (–PO32−–Zr4+–) complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV) with phosphate. Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual
[...] Read more.
Zr(IV) can form phosphate and Zr(IV) (–PO32−–Zr4+–) complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV) with phosphate. Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRA)sensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IV)with ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV). After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV) and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV), ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A520nm/A650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945) with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Colorimetric Integrated PCR Protocol for Rapid Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1600; doi:10.3390/s16101600
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Rapid detection of pathogens is of great significance for food safety and disease diagnosis. A new colorimetric method for rapid and easy detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus or Vp) has been developed in this research. A specific sequence was designed and
[...] Read more.
Rapid detection of pathogens is of great significance for food safety and disease diagnosis. A new colorimetric method for rapid and easy detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus or Vp) has been developed in this research. A specific sequence was designed and integrated with the forward primer for molecular detection of Vp. This specific sequence was tested and treated as the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme and could be amplified during the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. The products of PCR including the sequence of HRP-mimicking DNAzyme could produce the distinguished color in the presence of catalysis substrates. The optical signal of the catalysis reaction, which is in a linear relationship with the initial template of Vp, could be determined with the naked eye or measured with Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) for qualitative and quantitative detections, respectively. Based on the optical signal intensity, rapid and easy detection of Vp was successfully achieved with satisfied sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the detection of tdh, trh, tlh and toxR virulence genes of two Vp species (Vp 33847 and Vp 17802) were all performed successfully with this developed colorimetric integrated PCR protocol, which demonstrated potential applicability for the rapid detection of other bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Label-Free Ag+ Detection by Enhancing DNA Sensitized Tb3+ Luminescence
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1370; doi:10.3390/s16091370
Received: 10 July 2016 / Revised: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the effect of Ag+ on DNA sensitized Tb3+ luminescence was studied initially using the Ag+-specific RNA-cleaving DNAzyme, Ag10c. While we expected to observe luminescence quenching by Ag+, a significant enhancement was produced. Based on
[...] Read more.
In this work, the effect of Ag+ on DNA sensitized Tb3+ luminescence was studied initially using the Ag+-specific RNA-cleaving DNAzyme, Ag10c. While we expected to observe luminescence quenching by Ag+, a significant enhancement was produced. Based on this observation, simple DNA oligonucleotide homopolymers were used with systematically varied sequence and length. We discovered that both poly-G and poly-T DNA have a significant emission enhancement by Ag+, while the absolute intensity is stronger with the poly-G DNA, indicating that a G-quadruplex DNA is not required for this enhancement. Using the optimized length of the G7 DNA (an oligo constituted with seven guanines), Ag+ was measured with a detection limit of 57.6 nM. The signaling kinetics, G7 DNA conformation, and the binding affinity of Tb3+ to the DNA in the presence or absence of Ag+ are also studied to reveal the mechanism of emission enhancement. This observation is useful not only for label-free detection of Ag+, but also interesting for the rational design of new biosensors using Tb3+ luminescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Sensitive Bioanalysis Based on in-Situ Droplet Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Detection of CdS Quantum Dots Label after Enhanced Cathodic Preconcentration
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1342; doi:10.3390/s16091342
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We report a protocol of CdS-labeled sandwich-type amperometric bioanalysis with high sensitivity, on the basis of simultaneous chemical-dissolution/cathodic-enrichment of the CdS quantum dot biolabel and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) detection of Cd directly on the bioelectrode. We added a microliter droplet of 0.1
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We report a protocol of CdS-labeled sandwich-type amperometric bioanalysis with high sensitivity, on the basis of simultaneous chemical-dissolution/cathodic-enrichment of the CdS quantum dot biolabel and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) detection of Cd directly on the bioelectrode. We added a microliter droplet of 0.1 M aqueous HNO3 to dissolve CdS on the bioelectrode and simultaneously achieved the potentiostatic cathodic preconcentration of Cd by starting the potentiostatic operation before HNO3 addition, which can largely increase the ASV signal. Our protocol was used for immunoanalysis and aptamer-based bioanalysis of several proteins, giving limits of detection of 4.5 fg·mL−1 for human immunoglobulin G, 3.0 fg·mL−1 for human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), 4.9 fg·mL−1 for human α-fetoprotein (AFP), and 0.9 fM for thrombin, which are better than many reported results. The simultaneous and sensitive analysis of CEA and AFP at two screen-printed carbon electrodes was also conducted by our protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Biomechanical Characterization of Cardiomyocyte Using PDMS Pillar with Microgrooves
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1258; doi:10.3390/s16081258
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 30 July 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
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Abstract
This paper describes the surface-patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pillar arrays for enhancing cell alignment and contraction force in cardiomyocytes. The PDMS micropillar (μpillar) arrays with microgrooves (μgrooves) were fabricated using a unique micro-mold made using SU-8 double layer processes. The spring constant of the
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This paper describes the surface-patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pillar arrays for enhancing cell alignment and contraction force in cardiomyocytes. The PDMS micropillar (μpillar) arrays with microgrooves (μgrooves) were fabricated using a unique micro-mold made using SU-8 double layer processes. The spring constant of the μpillar arrays was experimentally confirmed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). After culturing cardiac cells on the two different types of μpillar arrays, with and without grooves on the top of μpillar, the characteristics of the cardiomyocytes were analyzed using a custom-made image analysis system. The alignment of the cardiomyocytes on the μgrooves of the μpillars was clearly observed using a DAPI staining process. The mechanical force generated by the contraction force of the cardiomyocytes was derived from the displacement of the μpillar arrays. The contraction force of the cardiomyocytes aligned on the μgrooves was 20% higher than that of the μpillar arrays without μgrooves. The experimental results prove that applied geometrical stimulus is an effective method for aligning and improving the contraction force of cardiomyocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Recent Advances in Silicon Nanomaterial-Based Fluorescent Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 268; doi:10.3390/s17020268
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 3 February 2017
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Abstract
During the past decades, owing to silicon nanomaterials’ unique optical properties, benign biocompatibility, and abundant surface chemistry, different dimensional silicon nanostructures have been widely employed for rationally designing and fabricating high-performance fluorescent sensors for the detection of various chemical and biological species. Among
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During the past decades, owing to silicon nanomaterials’ unique optical properties, benign biocompatibility, and abundant surface chemistry, different dimensional silicon nanostructures have been widely employed for rationally designing and fabricating high-performance fluorescent sensors for the detection of various chemical and biological species. Among of these, zero-dimensional silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) and one-dimensional silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are of particular interest. Herein, we focus on reviewing recent advances in silicon nanomaterials-based fluorescent sensors from a broad perspective and discuss possible future directions. Firstly, we introduce the latest achievement of zero-dimensional SiNP-based fluorescent sensors. Next, we present recent advances of one-dimensional SiNW-based fluorescent sensors. Finally, we discuss the major challenges and prospects for the development of silicon-based fluorescent sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessReview CMOS Electrochemical Instrumentation for Biosensor Microsystems: A Review
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 74; doi:10.3390/s17010074
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 31 December 2016
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Abstract
Modern biosensors play a critical role in healthcare and have a quickly growing commercial market. Compared to traditional optical-based sensing, electrochemical biosensors are attractive due to superior performance in response time, cost, complexity and potential for miniaturization. To address the shortcomings of traditional
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Modern biosensors play a critical role in healthcare and have a quickly growing commercial market. Compared to traditional optical-based sensing, electrochemical biosensors are attractive due to superior performance in response time, cost, complexity and potential for miniaturization. To address the shortcomings of traditional benchtop electrochemical instruments, in recent years, many complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) instrumentation circuits have been reported for electrochemical biosensors. This paper provides a review and analysis of CMOS electrochemical instrumentation circuits. First, important concepts in electrochemical sensing are presented from an instrumentation point of view. Then, electrochemical instrumentation circuits are organized into functional classes, and reported CMOS circuits are reviewed and analyzed to illuminate design options and performance tradeoffs. Finally, recent trends and challenges toward on-CMOS sensor integration that could enable highly miniaturized electrochemical biosensor microsystems are discussed. The information in the paper can guide next generation electrochemical sensor design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessReview Nanobiosensing with Arrays and Ensembles of Nanoelectrodes
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 65; doi:10.3390/s17010065
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 December 2016 / Published: 30 December 2016
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Abstract
Since the first reports dating back to the mid-1990s, ensembles and arrays of nanoelectrodes (NEEs and NEAs, respectively) have gained an important role as advanced electroanalytical tools thank to their unique characteristics which include, among others, dramatically improved signal/noise ratios, enhanced mass transport
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Since the first reports dating back to the mid-1990s, ensembles and arrays of nanoelectrodes (NEEs and NEAs, respectively) have gained an important role as advanced electroanalytical tools thank to their unique characteristics which include, among others, dramatically improved signal/noise ratios, enhanced mass transport and suitability for extreme miniaturization. From the year 2000 onward, these properties have been exploited to develop electrochemical biosensors in which the surfaces of NEEs/NEAs have been functionalized with biorecognition layers using immobilization modes able to take the maximum advantage from the special morphology and composite nature of their surface. This paper presents an updated overview of this field. It consists of two parts. In the first, we discuss nanofabrication methods and the principles of functioning of NEEs/NEAs, focusing, in particular, on those features which are important for the development of highly sensitive and miniaturized biosensors. In the second part, we review literature references dealing the bioanalytical and biosensing applications of sensors based on biofunctionalized arrays/ensembles of nanoelectrodes, focusing our attention on the most recent advances, published in the last five years. The goal of this review is both to furnish fundamental knowledge to researchers starting their activity in this field and provide critical information on recent achievements which can stimulate new ideas for future developments to experienced scientists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessReview Nano-Engineered Biomimetic Optical Sensors for Glucose Monitoring in Diabetes
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1931; doi:10.3390/s16111931
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetes is a rapidly growing disease that can be monitored at an individual level by controlling the blood glucose level, hence minimizing the negative impact of the disease. Significant research efforts have been focused on the design of novel and improved technologies to
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Diabetes is a rapidly growing disease that can be monitored at an individual level by controlling the blood glucose level, hence minimizing the negative impact of the disease. Significant research efforts have been focused on the design of novel and improved technologies to overcome the limitations of existing glucose analysis methods. In this context, nanotechnology has enabled the diagnosis at the single cell and molecular level with the possibility of incorporation in advanced molecular diagnostic biochips. Recent years have witnessed the exploration and synthesis of various types of nanomaterials with enzyme-like properties, with their subsequent integration into the design of biomimetic optical sensors for glucose monitoring. This review paper will provide insights on the type, nature and synthesis of different biomimetic nanomaterials. Moreover, recent developments in the integration of these nanomaterials for optical glucose biosensing will be highlighted, with a final discussion on the challenges that must be addressed for successful implementation of these nano-devices in the clinical applications is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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Open AccessReview Recent Progresses in Nanobiosensing for Food Safety Analysis
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1118; doi:10.3390/s16071118
Received: 2 May 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
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Abstract
With increasing adulteration, food safety analysis has become an important research field. Nanomaterials-based biosensing holds great potential in designing highly sensitive and selective detection strategies necessary for food safety analysis. This review summarizes various function types of nanomaterials, the methods of functionalization of
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With increasing adulteration, food safety analysis has become an important research field. Nanomaterials-based biosensing holds great potential in designing highly sensitive and selective detection strategies necessary for food safety analysis. This review summarizes various function types of nanomaterials, the methods of functionalization of nanomaterials, and recent (2014–present) progress in the design and development of nanobiosensing for the detection of food contaminants including pathogens, toxins, pesticides, antibiotics, metal contaminants, and other analytes, which are sub-classified according to various recognition methods of each analyte. The existing shortcomings and future perspectives of the rapidly growing field of nanobiosensing addressing food safety issues are also discussed briefly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
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