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Sensors 2017, 17(1), 61; doi:10.3390/s17010061

In Situ Real-Time Monitoring of Glutamate and Electrophysiology from Cortex to Hippocampus in Mice Based on a Microelectrode Array

State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Institute of Mental Health, the Sixth Hospital of Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Huangxian Ju
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 30 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2077 KB, uploaded 30 December 2016]   |  


Changes in the structure and function of the hippocampus contribute to epilepsy, schizophrenia and other neurological or mental disorders of the brain. Since the function of the hippocampus depends heavily on the glutamate (Glu) signaling pathways, in situ real-time detection of Glu neurotransmitter release and electrophysiological signals in hippocampus is of great significance. To achieve the dual-mode detection in mouse hippocampus in vivo, a 16-channel implantable microelectrode array (MEA) was fabricated by micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology. Twelve microelectrode sites were modified with platinum black for electrophysiological recording and four sites were modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx) and 1,3-phenylenediamine (mPD) for selective electrochemical detection of Glu. The MEA was implanted from cortex to hippocampus in mouse brain for in situ real-time monitoring of Glu and electrophysiological signals. It was found that the Glu concentration in hippocampus was roughly 50 μM higher than that in the cortex, and the firing rate of concurrently recorded spikes declined from 6.32 ± 4.35 spikes/s in cortex to 0.09 ± 0.06 spikes/s in hippocampus. The present results demonstrated that the dual-mode MEA probe was capable in neurological detections in vivo with high spatial resolution and dynamical response, which lays the foundation for further pathology studies in the hippocampus of mouse models with nervous or mental disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: MEMS; implantable microelectrode array; glutamate; spike; hippocampus MEMS; implantable microelectrode array; glutamate; spike; hippocampus

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Fan, X.; Song, Y.; Ma, Y.; Zhang, S.; Xiao, G.; Yang, L.; Xu, H.; Zhang, D.; Cai, X. In Situ Real-Time Monitoring of Glutamate and Electrophysiology from Cortex to Hippocampus in Mice Based on a Microelectrode Array. Sensors 2017, 17, 61.

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