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Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2128; doi:10.3390/s16122128

Fabrication of a Horizontal and a Vertical Large Surface Area Nanogap Electrochemical Sensor

1
Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
2
School of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Huangxian Ju
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4759 KB, uploaded 14 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Nanogap sensors have a wide range of applications as they can provide accurate direct detection of biomolecules through impedimetric or amperometric signals. Signal response from nanogap sensors is dependent on both the electrode spacing and surface area. However, creating large surface area nanogap sensors presents several challenges during fabrication. We show two different approaches to achieve both horizontal and vertical coplanar nanogap geometries. In the first method we use electron-beam lithography (EBL) to pattern an 11 mm long serpentine nanogap (215 nm) between two electrodes. For the second method we use inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) reactive ion etching (RIE) to create a channel in a silicon substrate, optically pattern a buried 1.0 mm × 1.5 mm electrode before anodically bonding a second identical electrode, patterned on glass, directly above. The devices have a wide range of applicability in different sensing techniques with the large area nanogaps presenting advantages over other devices of the same family. As a case study we explore the detection of peptide nucleic acid (PNA)−DNA binding events using dielectric spectroscopy with the horizontal coplanar device. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanogap; horizontal coplanar; vertical coplanar; anodic bonding; dielectric; capacitance nanogap; horizontal coplanar; vertical coplanar; anodic bonding; dielectric; capacitance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hammond, J.L.; Rosamond, M.C.; Sivaraya, S.; Marken, F.; Estrela, P. Fabrication of a Horizontal and a Vertical Large Surface Area Nanogap Electrochemical Sensor. Sensors 2016, 16, 2128.

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