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Materials 2017, 10(1), 66; doi:10.3390/ma10010066

Scaling-Up Techniques for the Nanofabrication of Cell Culture Substrates via Two-Photon Polymerization for Industrial-Scale Expansion of Stem Cells

1
Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
2
Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN)-CNR and Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alina Maria Holban
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard and Soft Tissue Engineering: Novel Approaches)
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Abstract

Stem-cell-based therapies require a high number (106–109) of cells, therefore in vitro expansion is needed because of the initially low amount of stem cells obtainable from human tissues. Standard protocols for stem cell expansion are currently based on chemically-defined culture media and animal-derived feeder-cell layers, which expose cells to additives and to xenogeneic compounds, resulting in potential issues when used in clinics. The two-photon laser polymerization technique enables three-dimensional micro-structures to be fabricated, which we named synthetic nichoids. Here we review our activity on the technological improvements in manufacturing biomimetic synthetic nichoids and, in particular on the optimization of the laser-material interaction to increase the patterned area and the percentage of cell culture surface covered by such synthetic nichoids, from a low initial value of 10% up to 88% with an optimized micromachining time. These results establish two-photon laser polymerization as a promising tool to fabricate substrates for stem cell expansion, without any chemical supplement and in feeder-free conditions for potential therapeutic uses. View Full-Text
Keywords: two-photon laser polymerization; microfabrication; synthetic nichoids; stem cell expansion; pluripotency maintenance; biomimetics two-photon laser polymerization; microfabrication; synthetic nichoids; stem cell expansion; pluripotency maintenance; biomimetics
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Ricci, D.; Nava, M.M.; Zandrini, T.; Cerullo, G.; Raimondi, M.T.; Osellame, R. Scaling-Up Techniques for the Nanofabrication of Cell Culture Substrates via Two-Photon Polymerization for Industrial-Scale Expansion of Stem Cells. Materials 2017, 10, 66.

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