Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 13th Estuarine and Coastal Modeling Conference"

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A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 December 2013)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Henry J. Bokuniewicz

School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000, USA
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Phone: 631-632-8674
Fax: +1 631 632 8820
Interests: nearshore transport processes; coastal groundwater hydrology; coastal sedimentation; marine geophysics
Guest Editor
Dr. Richard P. Signell

United States Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1523, USA
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Phone: +1 508-457-2229
Interests: geoinformatics; coastal ocean dynamics; numerical modeling; sediment transport

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Published Papers (23 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Wind Turbine Blade Life-Time Assessment Model for Preventive Planning of Operation and Maintenance
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(3), 1027-1040; doi:10.3390/jmse3031027
Received: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 7 September 2015
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Abstract
Out of the total wind turbine failure events, blade damage accounts for a substantial part, with some studies estimating it at around 23%. Current operation and maintenance (O&M) practices typically make use of corrective type maintenance as the basic approach, implying high costs
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Out of the total wind turbine failure events, blade damage accounts for a substantial part, with some studies estimating it at around 23%. Current operation and maintenance (O&M) practices typically make use of corrective type maintenance as the basic approach, implying high costs for repair and replacement activities as well as large revenue losses, mainly in the case of offshore wind farms. The recent development and evolution of condition monitoring techniques, as well as the fact that an increasing number of installed turbines are equipped with online monitoring systems, offers a large amount of information on the blades structural health to the decision maker. Further, inspections of the blades are often performed in connection with service. In light of the obtained information, a preventive type of maintenance becomes feasible, with the potential of predicting the blades remaining life to support O&M decisions for avoiding major failure events. The present paper presents a fracture mechanics based model for estimating the remaining life of a wind turbine blade, focusing on the crack propagation in the blades adhesive joints. A generic crack propagation model is built in Matlab based on a Paris law approach. The model is used within a risk-based maintenance decision framework to optimize maintenance planning for the blades lifetime. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hydrologic and Water Quality Model Development Using Simulink
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(4), 616-632; doi:10.3390/jmse2040616
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
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Abstract
A stormwater runoff model based on the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) method and a finite-volume based water quality model have been developed to investigate the use of Simulink for use in teaching and research. Simulink, a MATLAB extension, is a graphically based model
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A stormwater runoff model based on the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) method and a finite-volume based water quality model have been developed to investigate the use of Simulink for use in teaching and research. Simulink, a MATLAB extension, is a graphically based model development environment for system modeling and simulation. Widely used for mechanical and electrical systems, Simulink has had less use for modeling of hydrologic systems. The watershed model is being considered for use in teaching graduate-level courses in hydrology and/or stormwater modeling. Simulink’s block (data process) and arrow (data transfer) object model, the copy and paste user interface, the large number of existing blocks, and the absence of computer code allows students to become model developers almost immediately. The visual depiction of systems, their component subsystems, and the flow of data through the systems are ideal attributes for hands-on teaching of hydrologic and mass balance processes to today’s computer-savvy visual learners. Model development with Simulink for research purposes is also investigated. A finite volume, multi-layer pond model using the water quality kinetics present in CE-QUAL-W2 has been developed using Simulink. The model is one of the first uses of Simulink for modeling eutrophication dynamics in stratified natural systems. The model structure and a test case are presented. One use of the model for teaching a graduate-level water quality modeling class is also described. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 493-505; doi:10.3390/jmse2020493
Received: 21 February 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 7 May 2014 / Published: 4 June 2014
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Abstract
Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to the
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Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to the coastal and marine environments typically through submarine outfalls. Proper disposal of effluents from an LNG plant is essential to retain local and regional environmental values and to ensure regulatory and permit compliance for industrial effluents. Typical outfall designs involve multi-port diffuser systems where the design forms a part of the overall environmental impact assessment for the plant. The design approach needs to ensure that both near-field plume dispersion and far-field effluent circulation meets the specified mixing zone criteria. This paper describes typical wastewater process streams from an LNG plant and presents a diffuser system design case study (for an undisclosed project location) in a meso-tidal coast to meet the effluent mixing zone criteria. The outfall is located in a coastal and marine ecosystem where the large tidal range and persistent surface wind govern conditions for the diffuser design. Physical environmental attributes and permit compliance criteria are discussed in a generic format. The paper describes the design approach, conceptualization of numerical model schemes for near- and far-field effluent mixing zones, and the selected diffuser design. Full article
Open AccessArticle Predicting the Storm Surge Threat of Hurricane Sandy with the National Weather Service SLOSH Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 437-476; doi:10.3390/jmse2020437
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 28 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 19 May 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (8666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerical simulations of the storm tide that flooded the US Atlantic coastline during Hurricane Sandy (2012) are carried out using the National Weather Service (NWS) Sea Lakes and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH) storm surge prediction model to quantify its ability to replicate
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Numerical simulations of the storm tide that flooded the US Atlantic coastline during Hurricane Sandy (2012) are carried out using the National Weather Service (NWS) Sea Lakes and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH) storm surge prediction model to quantify its ability to replicate the height, timing, evolution and extent of the water that was driven ashore by this large, destructive storm. Recent upgrades to the numerical model, including the incorporation of astronomical tides, are described and simulations with and without these upgrades are contrasted to assess their contributions to the increase in forecast accuracy. It is shown, through comprehensive verifications of SLOSH simulation results against peak water surface elevations measured at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide gauge stations, by storm surge sensors deployed and hundreds of high water marks collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), that the SLOSH-simulated water levels at 71% (89%) of the data measurement locations have less than 20% (30%) relative error. The RMS error between observed and modeled peak water levels is 0.47 m. In addition, the model’s extreme computational efficiency enables it to run large, automated ensembles of predictions in real-time to account for the high variability that can occur in tropical cyclone forecasts, thus furnishing a range of values for the predicted storm surge and inundation threat. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Model Behavior and Sensitivity in an Application of the Cohesive Bed Component of the Community Sediment Transport Modeling System for the York River Estuary, VA, USA
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 413-436; doi:10.3390/jmse2020413
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS) cohesive bed sub-model that accounts for erosion, deposition, consolidation, and swelling was implemented in a three-dimensional domain to represent the York River estuary, Virginia. The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the application of
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The Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS) cohesive bed sub-model that accounts for erosion, deposition, consolidation, and swelling was implemented in a three-dimensional domain to represent the York River estuary, Virginia. The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the application of the three-dimensional hydrodynamic York Cohesive Bed Model, (2) compare calculations to observations, and (3) investigate sensitivities of the cohesive bed sub-model to user-defined parameters. Model results for summer 2007 showed good agreement with tidal-phase averaged estimates of sediment concentration, bed stress, and current velocity derived from Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) field measurements. An important step in implementing the cohesive bed model was specification of both the initial and equilibrium critical shear stress profiles, in addition to choosing other parameters like the consolidation and swelling timescales. This model promises to be a useful tool for investigating the fundamental controls on bed erodibility and settling velocity in the York River, a classical muddy estuary, provided that appropriate data exists to inform the choice of model parameters. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exploring Localized Mixing Dynamics during Wet Weather in a Tidal Fresh Water System
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 386-399; doi:10.3390/jmse2020386
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
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Abstract
A recently validated 3-dimensional implementation of the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) for the tidal-fresh portions of the Delaware Estuary was exercised against the results of a dye release from a sewer outfall during a storm. The influence on dye distribution in the
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A recently validated 3-dimensional implementation of the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) for the tidal-fresh portions of the Delaware Estuary was exercised against the results of a dye release from a sewer outfall during a storm. The influence on dye distribution in the estuary resulting from variations in wind and local storm water discharges in an urban area is investigated. The modeled domain stretches 116 km from the head of tide and includes hydrologic input from 33 streams and a number of municipal and industrial discharges. Bottom roughness was parameterized from sedimentological and geophysical surveys. Model validation to-date relies upon field observations and tidal harmonics for sea level and currents derived from the NOAA-NOS 1984–1985 circulation survey and a current survey conducted by the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD). Model representation of dye distribution compared favorably for observations of concentrations in the dye plume from 10 cross-sections spanning the extent of the plume over seven tidal cycles. The dye distribution was characterized by an initial period of high local storm water and stream inflows with low wind conditions, lasting for several tidal cycles, followed by a period of reduced fresh water input and increasing wind stress. The dye experiment provided a unique opportunity to observe the performance of the model through the transition between these two very different meteorological periods, and to explore the physical conditions driving the hydrodynamics through both observations and numerical experiments. The influences of local meteorological forcing and channel morphology on lateral mixing, dispersion and longitudinal dynamics are characterized. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model for the Waipaoa Shelf, New Zealand: Sensitivity of Fluxes to Spatially-Varying Erodibility and Model Nesting
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 336-369; doi:10.3390/jmse2020336
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerical models can complement observations in investigations of marine sediment transport and depositional processes. A coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was implemented for the Waipaoa River continental shelf offshore of the North Island of New Zealand, to complement a 13-month field campaign
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Numerical models can complement observations in investigations of marine sediment transport and depositional processes. A coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was implemented for the Waipaoa River continental shelf offshore of the North Island of New Zealand, to complement a 13-month field campaign that collected seabed and hydrodynamic measurements. This paper described the formulations used within the model, and analyzed the sensitivity of sediment flux estimates to model nesting and seabed erodibility. Calculations were based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System—Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (ROMS-CSTMS), a primitive equation model using a finite difference solution to the equations for momentum and water mass conservation, and transport of salinity, temperature, and multiple classes of suspended sediment. The three-dimensional model resolved the complex bathymetry, bottom boundary layer, and river plume that impact sediment dispersal on this shelf, and accounted for processes including fluvial input, winds, waves, tides, and sediment resuspension. Nesting within a larger-scale, lower resolution hydrodynamic model stabilized model behavior during river floods and allowed large-scale shelf currents to impact sediment dispersal. To better represent observations showing that sediment erodibility decreased away from the river mouth, the seabed erosion rate parameter was reduced with water depth. This allowed the model to account for the observed spatial pattern of erodibility, though the model held the critical shear stress for erosion constant. Although the model neglected consolidation and swelling processes, use of a spatially-varying erodibility parameter significantly increased export of fluvial sediment from Poverty Bay to deeper areas of the shelf. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bed Scouring During the Release of an Ice Jam
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 370-385; doi:10.3390/jmse2020370
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 29 January 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
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Abstract
A model is developed for simulating changes in river bed morphology as a result of bed scouring during the release of an ice jam. The model couples a non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic model with the processes of erosion and deposition through a grid expansion technique.
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A model is developed for simulating changes in river bed morphology as a result of bed scouring during the release of an ice jam. The model couples a non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic model with the processes of erosion and deposition through a grid expansion technique. The actual movement of bed load is implemented by reconstructing the river bed in piecewise linear elements in order to bypass the limitations of the step-like approximation that the hydrodynamic model uses to capture the bed bathymetry. Initially, an ice jam is modeled as a rigid body of water near the free surface that constricts the flow. The ice jam does not exchange mass or momentum with the stream, but the ice body can have a realistic shape and offer resistance to the flow of water through the constriction. An ice jam release is modeled by suddenly enabling the ice to flow and exchange mass and momentum with the water. The resulting release resembles a dam break wave accelerating and causing flow velocities to rise rapidly. The model is used to simulate the 1984 ice jam in the St. Clair River, which is part of the Huron-Erie Corridor. The jam had a duration of 24 days, and its release was accompanied by high flow velocities. It is speculated that high flow velocities during the release of the jam caused scouring of the river bed. This led to an increase in the river’s conveyance that is partly responsible for the persistence of low water levels in the upper Great Lakes. The simulations confirm that an event similar to the 1984 ice jam will indeed cause scouring of the St. Clair River bed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Zone of Influence and Entrainment Impacts for an Intake Using a 3-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Transport Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 306-325; doi:10.3390/jmse2020306
Received: 10 December 2013 / Revised: 15 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 1 April 2014
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Abstract
Ballast water systems in large LNG carriers are essential for proper operations and stability. Water withdrawn from the surrounding environment to supply to the ballast can pose entrainment and impingement risk to the resident fish population. Quantification of these risks and the net
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Ballast water systems in large LNG carriers are essential for proper operations and stability. Water withdrawn from the surrounding environment to supply to the ballast can pose entrainment and impingement risk to the resident fish population. Quantification of these risks and the net effect on population is usually quite challenging and complex. Various methods over the last several decades have been developed and are available in the literature for quantification of entrainment of mobile and immobile lifestages of resident fish. In this study, a detailed 3-dimensional model was developed to estimate the entrainment of ichthyoplankton (fish eggs and larvae) and fish from an estuarine environment during the repeated short-term operation of a ballast water intake for an LNG carrier. It was also used to develop a zone of influence to determine the ability of mobile life stages to avoid impingement. The ichthyoplankton model is an Equivalent Adult Model (EAM) and assesses the number of breeding adults lost to the population. The EAM incorporates four different methods developed between 1978 and 2005. The study also considers the uncertainty in estimates for the lifestage data and, as such, performs sensitivity analyses to evaluate the confidence level achievable in such quantitative estimates for entrainment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Strengthening the Resiliency of a Coastal Transportation System through Integrated Simulation of Storm Surge, Inundation, and Nonrecurrent Congestion in Northeast Florida
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 287-305; doi:10.3390/jmse2020287
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 25 January 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 31 March 2014
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Abstract
The Multimodal Transportation Educational Virtual Appliance (MTEVA) is an application developed within the framework of the broader Coastal Science Educational Virtual Appliance (CSEVA) to enhance coastal resiliency through the integration of coastal science and transportation congestion models for emergency situations. The first generation
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The Multimodal Transportation Educational Virtual Appliance (MTEVA) is an application developed within the framework of the broader Coastal Science Educational Virtual Appliance (CSEVA) to enhance coastal resiliency through the integration of coastal science and transportation congestion models for emergency situations. The first generation MTEVA enabled users to perform and visualize simulations using an integrated storm surge and inundation model (CH3D-SSMS) and transportation evacuation/return modeling system that supports contraflow in a simple synthetic domain (order of tens of intersections/roads) under tropical storm conditions. In this study, the second generation MTEVA has been advanced to apply storm surge and evacuation models to the greater Jacksonville area of Northeast Florida (order tens of thousands of transportation intersections/roads). To support solving the evacuation problem with a significantly larger transportation network, new models have been developed, including a heuristic capable of efficiently solving large-scale problems. After initial testing on several smaller stand-alone transportation networks (e.g., Anaheim, Winnipeg), the heuristic is applied to the Jacksonville area transportation network. Results presented show the heuristic produces a nearly optimal (average optimality gap <0.5%) solution in 90% less wall clock time than needed by the exact solver. The MTEVA’s new capabilities are then demonstrated through the simulation of a Hurricane Katrina-sized storm impacting the region and studying how the evacuation patterns are affected by the closing of roads due to flooding and bridges due to high winds. To ensure residents are able to leave the area, evacuations are shown to need to have begun at least 36 h prior to landfall. Additionally it was shown that large numbers of residents would be left behind if evacuation does not begin within 18 h of landfall and ~97% would not escape if evacuation did not begin until landfall, when areas of the coast that are the most prone to flooding are already cut off from the “safe” nodes of the transportation network. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Towards the Development of the National Ocean Service San Francisco Bay Operational Forecast System
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 247-286; doi:10.3390/jmse2010247
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
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Abstract
The National Ocean Service (NOS), Center for Operational Products and Services installed a Physical Oceanographic Real Time System (PORTS) in San Francisco Bay during 1998 to provide water surface elevation, currents at PORTS prediction depth as well as near-surface temperature and salinity. To
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The National Ocean Service (NOS), Center for Operational Products and Services installed a Physical Oceanographic Real Time System (PORTS) in San Francisco Bay during 1998 to provide water surface elevation, currents at PORTS prediction depth as well as near-surface temperature and salinity. To complement the PORTS, a new nowcast/forecast system (consistent with NOS procedures) has been constructed. This new nowcast/forecast system is based on the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) using a computational domain, which extends from Rio Vista on the Sacramento River and Antioch on the San Joaquin River through Suisun and San Pablo Bays and Upper and Lower San Francisco Bay out onto the continental shelf. This paper presents the FVCOM setup, testing, and validation for tidal and hindcast scenarios. In addition, the San Francisco Bay Operational Forecast System (SFBOFS) setup within the NOS Coastal Ocean Model Framework (COMF) is discussed. The SFBOFS performance during a semi-operational nowcast/forecast test period is presented and the production webpage is also briefly introduced. FVCOM, the core of SFBOFS, has been found to run robustly during the test period. Amplitudes and epochs of the M2 S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, and Q1 constituents from the model tide-only simulation scenario are very close to the observed values at all stations. NOS skill assessment and RMS errors of all variables indicate that most statistical parameters pass the assessment criteria, and the model predictions are in agreement with measurements for both hindcast and semi-operational nowcast/forecast scenarios. Full article
Open AccessArticle Advances in a Distributed Approach for Ocean Model Data Interoperability
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 194-208; doi:10.3390/jmse2010194
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
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Abstract
An infrastructure for earth science data is emerging across the globe based on common data models and web services. As we evolve from custom file formats and web sites to standards-based web services and tools, data is becoming easier to distribute, find and
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An infrastructure for earth science data is emerging across the globe based on common data models and web services. As we evolve from custom file formats and web sites to standards-based web services and tools, data is becoming easier to distribute, find and retrieve, leaving more time for science. We describe recent advances that make it easier for ocean model providers to share their data, and for users to search, access, analyze and visualize ocean data using MATLAB® and Python®. These include a technique for modelers to create aggregated, Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention datasets from collections of non-standard Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) output files, the capability to remotely access data from CF-1.6-compliant NetCDF files using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Observation Service (SOS), a metadata standard for unstructured grid model output (UGRID), and tools that utilize both CF and UGRID standards to allow interoperable data search, browse and access. We use examples from the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Coastal and Ocean Modeling Testbed, a project in which modelers using both structured and unstructured grid model output needed to share their results, to compare their results with other models, and to compare models with observed data. The same techniques used here for ocean modeling output can be applied to atmospheric and climate model output, remote sensing data, digital terrain and bathymetric data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Resolution 3-D Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Modeling in Lower Campbell River and Discovery Passage, British Columbia, Canada
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 209-225; doi:10.3390/jmse2010209
Received: 10 December 2013 / Revised: 1 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
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Abstract
The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour Narrows)
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The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour Narrows) and tailrace discharges, small-scale topographic features and steep bottom slopes, and stratification affected by the Campbell River freshwater discharges. Two applications of high resolution 3-D FVCOM modeling were conducted. One is for the Lower Campbell River extending upstream as far as the John Hart Hydroelectric dam. The horizontal resolution varies from 0.27 m to 32 m in the unstructured triangular mesh to resolve the tailrace flow. The bottom elevation decreases ~14 m within the distance of ~1.4 km along the river. This pioneering FVCOM river modeling demonstrated a very good performance in simulating the river flow structures. The second application is to compute ocean currents immediately above the seabed along the present underwater electrical cable crossing routes across Discovery Passage. Higher resolution was used near the bottom with inter-layer spacing ranging from 0.125 to 0.0005 of total water depth. The model behaves very well in simulating the strong tidal currents in the area at high resolution in both the horizontal and vertical. One year maximum near bottom tidal current along the routes was then analyzed using the model results. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Storm Surge and Sub-Grid Inundation Modeling in New York City during Hurricane Sandy
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 226-246; doi:10.3390/jmse2010226
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
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Abstract
Hurricane Sandy inflicted heavy damage in New York City and the New Jersey coast as the second costliest storm in history. A large-scale, unstructured grid storm tide model, Semi-implicit Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element (SELFE), was used to hindcast water level variation during Hurricane
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Hurricane Sandy inflicted heavy damage in New York City and the New Jersey coast as the second costliest storm in history. A large-scale, unstructured grid storm tide model, Semi-implicit Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element (SELFE), was used to hindcast water level variation during Hurricane Sandy in the mid-Atlantic portion of the U.S. East Coast. The model was forced by eight tidal constituents at the model’s open boundary, 1500 km away from the coast, and the wind and pressure fields from atmospheric model Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) provided by Weatherflow Inc. The comparisons of the modeled storm tide with the NOAA gauge stations from Montauk, NY, Long Island Sound, encompassing New York Harbor, Atlantic City, NJ, to Duck, NC, were in good agreement, with an overall root mean square error and relative error in the order of 15–20 cm and 5%–7%, respectively. Furthermore, using large-scale model outputs as the boundary conditions, a separate sub-grid model that incorporates LIDAR data for the major portion of the New York City was also set up to investigate the detailed inundation process. The model results compared favorably with USGS’ Hurricane Sandy Mapper database in terms of its timing, local inundation area, and the depth of the flooding water. The street-level inundation with water bypassing the city building was created and the maximum extent of horizontal inundation was calculated, which was within 30 m of the data-derived estimate by USGS. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development and Use of Tide Models in Alaska Supporting VDatum and Hydrographic Surveying
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 171-193; doi:10.3390/jmse2010171
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 25 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
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Abstract
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Ocean Service uses observations, hydrodynamic models and interpolation techniques to develop many of its products and services. We examine how two projects, computation of tidal datums for vertical datum transformation and the estimation of tidal characteristics for
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Ocean Service uses observations, hydrodynamic models and interpolation techniques to develop many of its products and services. We examine how two projects, computation of tidal datums for vertical datum transformation and the estimation of tidal characteristics for hydrographic surveys, are being developed in Alaska and how they may be more seamlessly integrated. Preliminary VDatum development for Alaska is in progress for the Alaska Panhandle through the setup of a high resolution tide model that will be used to compute spatially varying tidal datums. Tide models such as these can be used for other projects that traditionally rely on estimation of tides in between data locations, such as the planning for hydrographic surveys that need correctors to adjust bathymetry to the chart datum. We therefore also examine how an existing model in western Alaska can be used for better supporting hydrographic survey planning. The results show that integration of tide models with nearshore observations can provide improved information for these correctors and future work will further evaluate this methodology with existing VDatum tide models. Full article
Open AccessArticle Field and Model Study to Define Baseline Conditions of Beached Oil Tar Balls along Florida’s First Coast
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 160-170; doi:10.3390/jmse2010160
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
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Abstract
Anecdotal data are currently the best data available to describe baseline conditions of beached oil tar balls on Florida’s First Coast beaches. This study combines field methods and numerical modeling to define a data-driven knowledge base of oil tar ball baseline conditions. Outcomes
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Anecdotal data are currently the best data available to describe baseline conditions of beached oil tar balls on Florida’s First Coast beaches. This study combines field methods and numerical modeling to define a data-driven knowledge base of oil tar ball baseline conditions. Outcomes from the field study include an established methodology for field data collection and laboratory testing of beached oil tar balls, spatial maps of collected samples and analysis of the data as to transport/wash-up trends. Archives of the electronic data, including GPS locations and other informational tags, and collected samples are presented, as are the physical and chemical analyses of the collected samples. The thrust of the physical and chemical analyses is to differentiate the collected samples into highly suspect oil tar balls versus false/non-oil tar ball samples. The numerical modeling involves two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of astronomic tides. Results from the numerical modeling include velocity residuals that show ebb-dominated residual currents exiting the inlet via an offshore, counter-rotating dual-eddy system. The tidally derived residual currents are used as one explanation for the observed transport trends. The study concludes that the port activity in the St. Johns River is not majorly contributing to the baseline conditions of oil tar ball wash-up on Florida’s First Coast beaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Numerical Implementation of a Nonlinear Mild Slope Model for Shoaling Directional Waves
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 140-158; doi:10.3390/jmse2010140
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 25 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 25 February 2014
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Abstract
We describe the numerical implementation of a phase-resolving, nonlinear spectral model for shoaling directional waves over a mild sloping beach with straight parallel isobaths. The model accounts for non-linear, quadratic (triad) wave interactions as well as shoaling and refraction. The model integrates the
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We describe the numerical implementation of a phase-resolving, nonlinear spectral model for shoaling directional waves over a mild sloping beach with straight parallel isobaths. The model accounts for non-linear, quadratic (triad) wave interactions as well as shoaling and refraction. The model integrates the coupled, nonlinear hyperbolic evolution equations that describe the transformation of the complex Fourier amplitudes of the deep-water directional wave field. Because typical directional wave spectra (observed or produced by deep-water forecasting models such as WAVEWATCH III™) do not contain phase information, individual realizations are generated by associating a random phase to each Fourier mode. The approach provides a natural extension to the deep-water spectral wave models, and has the advantage of fully describing the shoaling wave stochastic process, i.e., the evolution of both the variance and higher order statistics (phase correlations), the latter related to the evolution of the wave shape. The numerical implementation (a Fortran 95/2003 code) includes unidirectional (shore-perpendicular) propagation as a special case. Interoperability, both with post-processing programs (e.g., MATLAB/Tecplot 360) and future model coupling (e.g., offshore wave conditions from WAVEWATCH III™), is promoted by using NetCDF-4/HD5 formatted output files. The capabilities of the model are demonstrated using a JONSWAP spectrum with a cos2s directional distribution, for shore-perpendicular and oblique propagation. The simulated wave transformation under combined shoaling, refraction and nonlinear interactions shows the expected generation of directional harmonics of the spectral peak and of infragravity (frequency <0.05 Hz) waves. Current development efforts focus on analytic testing, development of additional physics modules essential for applications and validation with laboratory and field observations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Conceptual Site Model for Newark Bay—Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 123-139; doi:10.3390/jmse2010123
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
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Abstract
A conceptual site model (CSM) has been developed for the Newark Bay Study Area (NBSA) as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for this New Jersey site. The CSM is an evolving document that describes the influence of physical, chemical and biological
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A conceptual site model (CSM) has been developed for the Newark Bay Study Area (NBSA) as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for this New Jersey site. The CSM is an evolving document that describes the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes on contaminant fate and transport. The CSM is initiated at the start of a project, updated during site activities, and used to inform sampling and remediation planning. This paper describes the hydrodynamic and sediment transport components of the CSM for the NBSA. Hydrodynamic processes are influenced by freshwater inflows, astronomical forcing through two tidal straits, meteorological conditions, and anthropogenic activities such as navigational dredging. Sediment dynamics are driven by hydrodynamics, waves, sediment loading from freshwater sources and the tidal straits, sediment size gradation, sediment bed properties, and particle-to-particle interactions. Cohesive sediment transport is governed by advection, dispersion, aggregation, settling, consolidation, and erosion. Noncohesive sediment transport is governed by advection, dispersion, settling, armoring, and transport in suspension and along the bed. The CSM will inform the development and application of a numerical model that accounts for all key variables to adequately describe the NBSA’s historical, current, and future physical conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of a Kelp-Type Structure Module in a Coastal Ocean Model to Assess the Hydrodynamic Impact of Seawater Uranium Extraction Technology
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 81-92; doi:10.3390/jmse2010081
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 17 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 7 February 2014
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Abstract
With the rapid growth of global energy demand, interest in extracting uranium from seawater for nuclear energy has been renewed. While extracting seawater uranium is not yet commercially viable, it serves as a “backstop” to the conventional uranium resources and provides an essentially
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With the rapid growth of global energy demand, interest in extracting uranium from seawater for nuclear energy has been renewed. While extracting seawater uranium is not yet commercially viable, it serves as a “backstop” to the conventional uranium resources and provides an essentially unlimited supply of uranium resource. With recent technology advances, extracting uranium from seawater could be economically feasible only when the extraction devices are deployed at a large scale (e.g., several hundred km2). There is concern however that the large scale deployment of adsorbent farms could result in potential impacts to the hydrodynamic flow field in an oceanic setting. In this study, a kelp-type structure module based on the classic momentum sink approach was incorporated into a coastal ocean model to simulate the blockage effect of a farm of passive uranium extraction devices on the flow field. The module was quantitatively validated against laboratory flume experiments for both velocity and turbulence profiles.Model results suggest that the reduction in ambient currents could range from 4% to 10% using adsorbent farm dimensions and mooring densities previously described in the literature and with typical drag coefficients. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estimate Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Crystal River/Kings Bay in Florida with the Help of a Hydrodynamic Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 66-80; doi:10.3390/jmse2010066
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
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Abstract
Crystal River/Kings Bay is a spring-fed estuarine system located on the west coast of the Florida peninsula. During 2008-2009, a field investigation was conducted to measure submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs) from numerous spring vents in Kings Bay. Based on directly measured real-time SGD
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Crystal River/Kings Bay is a spring-fed estuarine system located on the west coast of the Florida peninsula. During 2008-2009, a field investigation was conducted to measure submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs) from numerous spring vents in Kings Bay. Based on directly measured real-time SGD data, an empirical relationship that links SGD with tides in Kings Bay and the groundwater level measured in a nearby Artesian well were obtained. A 3D unstructured Cartesian grid model was used to help verify the correctness of the empirical SGD formula, which was slightly adjusted for each individual vent when used in the model. The model was calibrated and verified against measured real-time data of water level, salinity, and temperature at two stations in the estuary. A successful simulation of circulations, salinity transport processes, and thermodynamics in the Crystal River/Kings Bay system proves that the empirical relationship is appropriate for estimating SGDs in Kings Bay. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis to Support Nearshore Restoration Projects in a Changing Climate
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 18-32; doi:10.3390/jmse2010018
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 26 December 2013 / Accepted: 31 December 2013 / Published: 22 January 2014
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Abstract
To re-establish the intertidal wetlands with full tidal exchange and improve salmonid rearing habitat in the Skagit River estuary, State of Washington, USA, a diked agriculture farm land along the Skagit Bay front is proposed to be restored to a fully functional tidal
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To re-establish the intertidal wetlands with full tidal exchange and improve salmonid rearing habitat in the Skagit River estuary, State of Washington, USA, a diked agriculture farm land along the Skagit Bay front is proposed to be restored to a fully functional tidal wetland. The complex and dynamic Skagit River estuarine system calls for the need of a multi-facet and multi-dimensional analysis using observed data, numerical and analytical methods. To assist the feasibility study of the restoration project, a hydrodynamic modeling analysis was conducted using a high-resolution unstructured-grid coastal ocean model to evaluate the hydrodynamic response to restoration alternatives and to provide guidance to the engineering design of a new levee in the restoration site. A set of parameters were defined to quantify the hydrodynamic response of the nearshore restoration project, such as inundation area, duration of inundation, water depth and salinity of the inundated area. To assist the design of the new levee in the restoration site, the maximum water level near the project site was estimated with consideration of extreme high tide, wind-induced storm surge, significant wave height and future sea-level rise based on numerical model results and coastal engineering calculation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Hurricane Irene’s Wind Field Using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 33-45; doi:10.3390/jmse2010033
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 11 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
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Abstract
Hurricane Irene caused widespread and significant impacts along the U.S. east coast during 27–29 August 2011. During this period, the storm moved across eastern North Carolina and then tracked northward crossing into Long Island and western New England. Impacts included severe flooding from
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Hurricane Irene caused widespread and significant impacts along the U.S. east coast during 27–29 August 2011. During this period, the storm moved across eastern North Carolina and then tracked northward crossing into Long Island and western New England. Impacts included severe flooding from the mid-Atlantic states into eastern New York and western New England, widespread wind damage and power outages across a large portion of southern and central New England, and a major storm surge along portions of the Long Island coast. The objective of this study was to conduct retrospective simulations using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) model in an effort to reconstruct the storm’s surface wind field during the period of 27–29 August 2011. The goal was to evaluate how to use the WRF modeling system as a tool for reconstructing the surface wind field from historical storm events to support storm surge studies. The results suggest that, with even modest data assimilation applied to these simulations, the model was able to resolve the detailed structure of the storm, the storm track, and the spatial surface wind field pattern very well. The WRF model shows real potential for being used as a tool to analyze historical storm events to support storm surge studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle NOAA’s Nested Northern Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast Systems Development
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 1-17; doi:10.3390/jmse2010001
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 24 December 2013 / Accepted: 25 December 2013 / Published: 9 January 2014
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Abstract
The NOAA National Ocean Service’s (NOS) Northern Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast System (NGOFS) became operational in March 2012. Implemented with the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) as its core three-dimensional oceanographic circulation model, NGOFS produces a real-time nowcast (−6 h to
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The NOAA National Ocean Service’s (NOS) Northern Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast System (NGOFS) became operational in March 2012. Implemented with the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) as its core three-dimensional oceanographic circulation model, NGOFS produces a real-time nowcast (−6 h to zero) and six-hourly, two-day forecast guidance for water levels and three-dimensional currents, water temperature and salinity over the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf. Designed as a regional scale prediction system, NGOFS lacks sufficient spatial coverage and/or resolution to fully resolve hydrodynamic features in critical seaports and estuaries. To overcome this shortcoming and better support the needs of marine navigation, emergency response, and environmental management, two FVCOM-based, high-resolution, estuary-scale nested forecast modeling systems, namely the Northwest and Northeast Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast Systems (NWGOFS and NEGOFS), have been developed through one-way nesting in NGOFS. Using the atmospheric forecast guidance from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)/NWS (National Weather Services)’ North American Mesoscale (NAM) Forecast System, US Geological Survey (USGS) river discharge observations, and the NGOFS water level, current, water temperature and salinity as the surface, river, and open ocean boundary forcing, respectively, a six-month model hindcast for the period October 2010–March 2011 has been conducted. Modeled water levels, currents, salinity and water temperature are compared with observations using the NOS standard skill assessment software. Skill assessment scores indicated that NWGOFS and NEGOFS demonstrate improvement over NGOFS. The NWGOFS and NEGOFS are under real-time nowcast/forecast test and evaluation by NOS’s Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). The forecast systems are scheduled to be implemented operational on NOAA Weather & Climate Operational Supercomputing System (WCOSS) in June 2014. Full article

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