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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 493-505; doi:10.3390/jmse2020493
Article

Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem

1,†,*  and 2,†
Received: 21 February 2014; in revised form: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 7 May 2014 / Published: 4 June 2014
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Abstract: Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to the coastal and marine environments typically through submarine outfalls. Proper disposal of effluents from an LNG plant is essential to retain local and regional environmental values and to ensure regulatory and permit compliance for industrial effluents. Typical outfall designs involve multi-port diffuser systems where the design forms a part of the overall environmental impact assessment for the plant. The design approach needs to ensure that both near-field plume dispersion and far-field effluent circulation meets the specified mixing zone criteria. This paper describes typical wastewater process streams from an LNG plant and presents a diffuser system design case study (for an undisclosed project location) in a meso-tidal coast to meet the effluent mixing zone criteria. The outfall is located in a coastal and marine ecosystem where the large tidal range and persistent surface wind govern conditions for the diffuser design. Physical environmental attributes and permit compliance criteria are discussed in a generic format. The paper describes the design approach, conceptualization of numerical model schemes for near- and far-field effluent mixing zones, and the selected diffuser design.
Keywords: LNG plant; effluent discharge; mixing zone; near field; far field; diffuser design; numerical modeling LNG plant; effluent discharge; mixing zone; near field; far field; diffuser design; numerical modeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Samad, M.; El-Kheiashy, K. Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2, 493-505.

AMA Style

Samad M, El-Kheiashy K. Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(2):493-505.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Samad, Mustafa; El-Kheiashy, Karim. 2014. "Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem." J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2, no. 2: 493-505.

J. Mar. Sci. Eng. EISSN 2077-1312 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert