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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 306-325; doi:10.3390/jmse2020306
Article

Evaluation of the Zone of Influence and Entrainment Impacts for an Intake Using a 3-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Transport Model

1
, 1,*  and 2
Received: 10 December 2013; in revised form: 15 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 1 April 2014
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Abstract: Ballast water systems in large LNG carriers are essential for proper operations and stability. Water withdrawn from the surrounding environment to supply to the ballast can pose entrainment and impingement risk to the resident fish population. Quantification of these risks and the net effect on population is usually quite challenging and complex. Various methods over the last several decades have been developed and are available in the literature for quantification of entrainment of mobile and immobile lifestages of resident fish. In this study, a detailed 3-dimensional model was developed to estimate the entrainment of ichthyoplankton (fish eggs and larvae) and fish from an estuarine environment during the repeated short-term operation of a ballast water intake for an LNG carrier. It was also used to develop a zone of influence to determine the ability of mobile life stages to avoid impingement. The ichthyoplankton model is an Equivalent Adult Model (EAM) and assesses the number of breeding adults lost to the population. The EAM incorporates four different methods developed between 1978 and 2005. The study also considers the uncertainty in estimates for the lifestage data and, as such, performs sensitivity analyses to evaluate the confidence level achievable in such quantitative estimates for entrainment.
Keywords: 316(b); zone of influence; entrainment; impingement; ichthyoplankton; intakes; ballast water 316(b); zone of influence; entrainment; impingement; ichthyoplankton; intakes; ballast water
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Prakash, S.; Kolluru, V.; Young, C. Evaluation of the Zone of Influence and Entrainment Impacts for an Intake Using a 3-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Transport Model. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2, 306-325.

AMA Style

Prakash S, Kolluru V, Young C. Evaluation of the Zone of Influence and Entrainment Impacts for an Intake Using a 3-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Transport Model. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(2):306-325.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prakash, Shwet; Kolluru, Venkat; Young, Carol. 2014. "Evaluation of the Zone of Influence and Entrainment Impacts for an Intake Using a 3-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Transport Model." J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2, no. 2: 306-325.


J. Mar. Sci. Eng. EISSN 2077-1312 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert