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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 386-399; doi:10.3390/jmse2020386
Article

Exploring Localized Mixing Dynamics during Wet Weather in a Tidal Fresh Water System

1,†,*  and 2,†
Received: 3 December 2013; in revised form: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
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Abstract: A recently validated 3-dimensional implementation of the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) for the tidal-fresh portions of the Delaware Estuary was exercised against the results of a dye release from a sewer outfall during a storm. The influence on dye distribution in the estuary resulting from variations in wind and local storm water discharges in an urban area is investigated. The modeled domain stretches 116 km from the head of tide and includes hydrologic input from 33 streams and a number of municipal and industrial discharges. Bottom roughness was parameterized from sedimentological and geophysical surveys. Model validation to-date relies upon field observations and tidal harmonics for sea level and currents derived from the NOAA-NOS 1984–1985 circulation survey and a current survey conducted by the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD). Model representation of dye distribution compared favorably for observations of concentrations in the dye plume from 10 cross-sections spanning the extent of the plume over seven tidal cycles. The dye distribution was characterized by an initial period of high local storm water and stream inflows with low wind conditions, lasting for several tidal cycles, followed by a period of reduced fresh water input and increasing wind stress. The dye experiment provided a unique opportunity to observe the performance of the model through the transition between these two very different meteorological periods, and to explore the physical conditions driving the hydrodynamics through both observations and numerical experiments. The influences of local meteorological forcing and channel morphology on lateral mixing, dispersion and longitudinal dynamics are characterized.
Keywords: hydrodynamic numerical model; dye study; wind hydrodynamic numerical model; dye study; wind
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stammermann, R.; Duzinski, P. Exploring Localized Mixing Dynamics during Wet Weather in a Tidal Fresh Water System. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2, 386-399.

AMA Style

Stammermann R, Duzinski P. Exploring Localized Mixing Dynamics during Wet Weather in a Tidal Fresh Water System. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(2):386-399.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stammermann, Ramona; Duzinski, Philip. 2014. "Exploring Localized Mixing Dynamics during Wet Weather in a Tidal Fresh Water System." J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2, no. 2: 386-399.

J. Mar. Sci. Eng. EISSN 2077-1312 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert