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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 66-80; doi:10.3390/jmse2010066
Article

Estimate Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Crystal River/Kings Bay in Florida with the Help of a Hydrodynamic Model

Received: 25 November 2013; in revised form: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
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Abstract: Crystal River/Kings Bay is a spring-fed estuarine system located on the west coast of the Florida peninsula. During 2008-2009, a field investigation was conducted to measure submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs) from numerous spring vents in Kings Bay. Based on directly measured real-time SGD data, an empirical relationship that links SGD with tides in Kings Bay and the groundwater level measured in a nearby Artesian well were obtained. A 3D unstructured Cartesian grid model was used to help verify the correctness of the empirical SGD formula, which was slightly adjusted for each individual vent when used in the model. The model was calibrated and verified against measured real-time data of water level, salinity, and temperature at two stations in the estuary. A successful simulation of circulations, salinity transport processes, and thermodynamics in the Crystal River/Kings Bay system proves that the empirical relationship is appropriate for estimating SGDs in Kings Bay.
Keywords: submarine groundwater discharge; unstructured Cartesian grid hydrodynamic model; LESS3D; spring-fed estuary; Kings Bay submarine groundwater discharge; unstructured Cartesian grid hydrodynamic model; LESS3D; spring-fed estuary; Kings Bay
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, X. Estimate Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Crystal River/Kings Bay in Florida with the Help of a Hydrodynamic Model. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2, 66-80.

AMA Style

Chen X. Estimate Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Crystal River/Kings Bay in Florida with the Help of a Hydrodynamic Model. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(1):66-80.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, XinJian. 2014. "Estimate Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Crystal River/Kings Bay in Florida with the Help of a Hydrodynamic Model." J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2, no. 1: 66-80.

J. Mar. Sci. Eng. EISSN 2077-1312 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert