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Special Issue "Chitins 2016"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterial Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Hitoshi Sashiwa

Kaneka Co., Ltd, 5-1-1 Torikai-Nishi, Settsu, Osaka 566-0072 Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-72-653-8333
Interests: chemical modification of chitin and chitosan and their biomedical applications; Biodegradable Polymer; Bio-based polymer
Guest Editor
Dr. Shinsuke Ifuku

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8502, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-858-31-5592
Interests: production of novel chitin and chitosan materials (mainly nanofiber) by using chemical and material science approach

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The research history on chitins, one of the most major and abundant natural polysaccharides on earth, has been started around 40 years ago. Since the 1980s, chitin and chitosan research (including D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and their oligomers) has progressed significantly over several stages in both fundamental and industrial fields. With the opening of this Special Issue, “Chitins”, we are planning to produce a strong, very exciting issue that will encompass breakthroughs in highly valuable, scientific, and industrial research in this field. The Special Issue covers recent trends in all aspects of basic and applied scientific research on chitin, chitosan and their derivatives.

We look forward very much to your input.

Dr. Hitoshi Sashiwa
Dr. Shinsuke Ifuku
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chitin
  • chitosan
  • D-glucosamine
  • N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
  • chito-oligosaccharide

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 396; doi:10.3390/ijms18020396
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
PDF Full-text (887 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80–100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The reaction was
[...] Read more.
Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80–100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The reaction was accompanied by the release of water which was employed to investigate the reaction kinetics. Accordingly, the reaction rate followed the first-order model and Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was calculated to be 18 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the chitosan films were comprehensively studied. First, optimal curing conditions (84 °C, 93 min) were introduced through a central composite design. In order to evaluate the effects of adipic acid, the mechanical properties of physically cross-linked (uncured), chemically cross-linked (cured), and uncross-linked (prepared by acetic acid) films were compared. The use of adipic acid improved the tensile strength of uncured and chemically cross-linked films more than 60% and 113%, respectively. Finally, the effect of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) on the mechanical performance of cured films, in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, was investigated. The plasticized chitosan films reinforced by 5 wt % CNFs showed superior properties as a promising material for the development of chitosan-based biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Oral Administration of Surface-Deacetylated Chitin Nanofibers and Chitosan Inhibit 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Intestinal Mucositis in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 279; doi:10.3390/ijms18020279
Received: 11 December 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 27 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the prophylactic effects of orally administered surface-deacetylated chitin nanofibers (SDACNFs) and chitosan against 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis, which is a common side effect of 5-FU chemotherapy. SDACNFs and chitosan abolished histological abnormalities associated with intestinal mucositis and suppressed hypoproliferation and
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the prophylactic effects of orally administered surface-deacetylated chitin nanofibers (SDACNFs) and chitosan against 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis, which is a common side effect of 5-FU chemotherapy. SDACNFs and chitosan abolished histological abnormalities associated with intestinal mucositis and suppressed hypoproliferation and apoptosis of intestinal crypt cells. These results indicate that SDACNF and chitosan are useful agents for preventing mucositis induced by anti-cancer drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2016)
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Open AccessArticle In Vivo Assessment of Clobetasol Propionate-Loaded Lecithin-Chitosan Nanoparticles for Skin Delivery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 32; doi:10.3390/ijms18010032
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 26 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2561 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work was to assess in vivo the anti-inflammatory efficacy and tolerability of clobetasol propionate (CP) loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles incorporated into chitosan gel for topical application (CP 0.005%). As a comparison, a commercial cream (CP 0.05% w/w),
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to assess in vivo the anti-inflammatory efficacy and tolerability of clobetasol propionate (CP) loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles incorporated into chitosan gel for topical application (CP 0.005%). As a comparison, a commercial cream (CP 0.05% w/w), and a sodium deoxycholate gel (CP 0.05% w/w) were also evaluated. Lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by self-assembling of the components obtained by direct injection of soybean lecithin alcoholic solution containing CP into chitosan aqueous solution. Nanoparticles obtained had a particle size around 250 nm, narrow distribution (polydispersity index below 0.2) and positive surface charge, provided by a superficial layer of the cationic polymer. The nanoparticle suspension was then loaded into a chitosan gel, to obtain a final CP concentration of 0.005%. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test on Wistar rats, the effect of formulations on the barrier property of the stratum corneum were determined using transepidermal water loss measurements (TEWL) and histological analysis was performed to evaluate the possible presence of morphological changes. The results obtained indicate that nanoparticle-in-gel formulation produced significantly higher edema inhibition compared to other formulations tested, although it contained ten times less CP. TEWL measurements also revealed that all formulations have no significant disturbance on the barrier function of skin. Furthermore, histological analysis of rat abdominal skin did not show morphological tissue changes nor cell infiltration signs after application of the formulations. Taken together, the present data show that the use of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles in chitosan gel as a drug carrier significantly improves the risk-benefit ratio as compared with sodium-deoxycholate gel and commercial cream formulations of CP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Pure and Stable Chitosan Nanofibers by Electrospinning in the Presence of Poly(ethylene oxide)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1790; doi:10.3390/ijms17111790
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3876 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrospinning was employed to obtain chitosan nanofibers from blends of chitosans (CS) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Blends of chitosan (MW (weight-average molecular weight) = 102 kg/mol) and PEO (M (molecular weight) = 1000 kg/mol) were selected to optimize the electrospinning process
[...] Read more.
Electrospinning was employed to obtain chitosan nanofibers from blends of chitosans (CS) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Blends of chitosan (MW (weight-average molecular weight) = 102 kg/mol) and PEO (M (molecular weight) = 1000 kg/mol) were selected to optimize the electrospinning process parameters. The PEO powder was solubilized into chitosan solution at different weight ratios in 0.5 M acetic acid. The physicochemical changes of the nanofibers were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling capacity, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. For stabilization, the produced nanofibers were neutralized with K2CO3 in water or 70% ethanol/30% water as solvent. Subsequently, repeated washings with pure water were performed to extract PEO, potassium acetate and carbonate salts formed in the course of chitosan nanofiber purification. The increase of PEO content in the blend from 20 to 40 w% exhibited bead-free fibers with average diameters 85 ± 19 and 147 ± 28 nm, respectively. Their NMR analysis proved that PEO and the salts were nearly completely removed from the nanostructure of chitosan, demonstrating that the adopted strategy is successful for producing pure chitosan nanofibers. In addition, the nanofibers obtained after neutralization in ethanol-aqueous solution has better structural stability, at least for six months in aqueous solutions (phosphate buffer (PBS) or water). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Protein/CaCO3/Chitin Nanofiber Complex Prepared from Crab Shells by Simple Mechanical Treatment and Its Effect on Plant Growth
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1600; doi:10.3390/ijms17101600
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A protein/CaCO3/chitin nanofiber complex was prepared from crab shells by a simple mechanical treatment with a high-pressure water-jet (HPWJ) system. The preparation process did not involve chemical treatments, such as removal of protein and calcium carbonate with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric
[...] Read more.
A protein/CaCO3/chitin nanofiber complex was prepared from crab shells by a simple mechanical treatment with a high-pressure water-jet (HPWJ) system. The preparation process did not involve chemical treatments, such as removal of protein and calcium carbonate with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid, respectively. Thus, it was economically and environmentally friendly. The nanofibers obtained had uniform width and dispersed homogeneously in water. Nanofibers were characterized in morphology, transparency, and viscosity. Results indicated that the shell was mostly disintegrated into nanofibers at above five cycles of the HPWJ system. The chemical structure of the nanofiber was maintained even after extensive mechanical treatments. Subsequently, the nanofiber complex was found to improve the growth of tomatoes in a hydroponics system, suggesting the mechanical treatments efficiently released minerals into the system. The homogeneous dispersion of the nanofiber complex enabled easier application as a fertilizer compared to the crab shell flakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Evaluation of Enteric-Coated Chitosan Derivative-Based Microparticles Loaded with Salmon Calcitonin as an Oral Delivery System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1546; doi:10.3390/ijms17091546
Received: 7 June 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
PDF Full-text (1166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The production of protein drugs has recently increased due to advances in biotechnology, but their clinical use is generally limited to parenteral administration due to low absorption in non-parenteral administration. Therefore, non-parenteral delivery systems allowing sufficient absorption draw much attention. Methods: Microparticles
[...] Read more.
Background: The production of protein drugs has recently increased due to advances in biotechnology, but their clinical use is generally limited to parenteral administration due to low absorption in non-parenteral administration. Therefore, non-parenteral delivery systems allowing sufficient absorption draw much attention. Methods: Microparticles (MP) were prepared using chitosan-4-thio-butylamidine conjugate (Ch-TBA), trimethyl-chitosan (TMC), and chitosan (Ch). Using salmon calcitonin (sCT) as a model protein drug, Ch-TBA-, Ch-TBA/TMC (4/1)-, and Ch-based MP were produced, and their Eudragit L100 (Eud)-coated MP, named Ch-TBA-MP/Eud, Ch-TBA/TMC-MP/Eud, and Ch-MP/Eud, respectively, were prepared as oral delivery systems. These enteric-coated microparticles were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results: All microparticles before and after enteric coating had a submicron size (600–800 nm) and micrometer size (1300–1500 nm), respectively. In vitro release patterns were similar among all microparticles; release occurred gradually, and the release rate was slower at pH 1.2 than at pH 6.8. In oral ingestion, Ch-TBA-MP/Eud suppressed plasma Ca levels most effectively among the microparticles tested. The relative effectiveness of Ch-TBA-MP/Eud to the intramuscular injection was 8.6%, while the sCT solution showed no effectiveness. Conclusion: The results suggest that Eud-coated Ch-TBA-based microparticles should have potential as an oral delivery system of protein drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1429; doi:10.3390/ijms17091429
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 30 August 2016
PDF Full-text (815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free
[...] Read more.
In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Femtosecond Laser Patterning of the Biopolymer Chitosan for Biofilm Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1243; doi:10.3390/ijms17081243
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
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Abstract
Controlling microbial growth is crucial for many biomedical, pharmaceutical and food industry applications. In this paper, we used a femtosecond laser to microstructure the surface of chitosan, a biocompatible polymer that has been explored for applications ranging from antimicrobial action to drug delivery.
[...] Read more.
Controlling microbial growth is crucial for many biomedical, pharmaceutical and food industry applications. In this paper, we used a femtosecond laser to microstructure the surface of chitosan, a biocompatible polymer that has been explored for applications ranging from antimicrobial action to drug delivery. The influence of energy density on the features produced on chitosan was investigated by optical and atomic force microscopies. An increase in the hydrophilic character of the chitosan surface was attained upon laser micromachining. Patterned chitosan films were used to observe Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) biofilm formation, revealing an increase in the biofilm formation in the structured regions. Our results indicate that fs-laser micromachining is an attractive option to pattern biocompatible surfaces, and to investigate basic aspects of the relationship between surface topography and bacterial adhesion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2016)
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Open AccessArticle An Amphiprotic Novel Chitosanase from Bacillus mycoides and Its Application in the Production of Chitooligomers with Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1302; doi:10.3390/ijms17081302
Received: 28 June 2016 / Revised: 30 July 2016 / Accepted: 5 August 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objectives of this investigation were to produce a novel chitosanase for application in industries and waste treatment. The transformation of chitinous biowaste into valuable bioactive chitooligomers (COS) is one of the most exciting applications of chitosanase. An amphiprotic novel chitosanase from Bacillus
[...] Read more.
The objectives of this investigation were to produce a novel chitosanase for application in industries and waste treatment. The transformation of chitinous biowaste into valuable bioactive chitooligomers (COS) is one of the most exciting applications of chitosanase. An amphiprotic novel chitosanase from Bacillus mycoides TKU038 using squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium was retrieved from a Taiwan soil sample, which was purified by column chromatography, and characterized by biochemical protocol. Extracellular chitosanase (CS038) was purified to 130-fold with a 35% yield, and its molecular mass was roughly 48 kDa. CS038 was stable over a wide range of pH values (4–10) at 50 °C and exhibited an optimal temperature of 50 °C. Interestingly, the optimum pH values were estimated as 6 and 10, whereas CS038 exhibited chitosan-degrading activity (100% and 94%, respectively). CS038 had Km and Vmax values of 0.098 mg/mL and 1.336 U/min, separately, using different concentrations of water-soluble chitosan. A combination of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer data revealed that the chitosan oligosaccharides obtained from the hydrolysis of chitosan by CS038 comprise oligomers with multiple degrees of polymerization (DP), varying from 3–9, as well as CS038 in an endolytic fashion. The TKU038 culture supernatant and COS mixture exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities. The COS activities were dose dependent and correlated to their DP. The COS with high DP exhibited enhanced DPPH radical scavenging capability compared with COS with low DP. Furthermore, the COS exhibited inhibitory behavior on nitric oxide (NO) production in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, which was induced by Escherichia coli O111 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The COS with low DP possesses a more potent anti-inflammatory capability to decrease NO production (IC50, 76.27 ± 1.49 µg/mL) than that of COS with high DP (IC50, 82.65 ± 1.18 µg/mL). Given its effectiveness in production and purification, acidophilic and alkalophilic properties, stability over ranges of pH values, ability to generate COS, antioxidant activity, and anti-inflammatory, CS038 has potential applications in SPP waste treatment and industries for COS production as a medical prebiotic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2016)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Multicomponent, Tumor-Homing Chitosan Nanoparticles for Cancer Imaging and Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 594; doi:10.3390/ijms18030594
Received: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current clinical methods for cancer diagnosis and therapy have limitations, although survival periods are increasing as medical technologies develop. In most cancer cases, patient survival is closely related to cancer stage. Late-stage cancer after metastasis is very challenging to cure because current surgical
[...] Read more.
Current clinical methods for cancer diagnosis and therapy have limitations, although survival periods are increasing as medical technologies develop. In most cancer cases, patient survival is closely related to cancer stage. Late-stage cancer after metastasis is very challenging to cure because current surgical removal of cancer is not precise enough and significantly affects bystander normal tissues. Moreover, the subsequent chemotherapy and radiation therapy affect not only malignant tumors, but also healthy tissues. Nanotechnologies for cancer treatment have the clear objective of solving these issues. Nanoparticles have been developed to more accurately differentiate early-stage malignant tumors and to treat only the tumors while dramatically minimizing side effects. In this review, we focus on recent chitosan-based nanoparticles developed with the goal of accurate cancer imaging and effective treatment. Regarding imaging applications, we review optical and magnetic resonance cancer imaging in particular. Regarding cancer treatments, we review various therapeutic methods that use chitosan-based nanoparticles, including chemo-, gene, photothermal, photodynamic and magnetic therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2016)
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Open AccessReview Chitin Adsorbents for Toxic Metals: A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 114; doi:10.3390/ijms18010114
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 29 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 7 January 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wastewater treatment is still a critical issue all over the world. Among examined methods for the decontamination of wastewaters, adsorption is a promising, cheap, environmentally friendly and efficient procedure. There are various types of adsorbents that have been used to remove different pollutants
[...] Read more.
Wastewater treatment is still a critical issue all over the world. Among examined methods for the decontamination of wastewaters, adsorption is a promising, cheap, environmentally friendly and efficient procedure. There are various types of adsorbents that have been used to remove different pollutants such as agricultural waste, compost, nanomaterials, algae, etc., Chitin (poly-β-(1,4)-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine) is the second most abundant natural biopolymer and it has attracted scientific attention as an inexpensive adsorbent for toxic metals. This review article provides information about the use of chitin as an adsorbent. A list of chitin adsorbents with maximum adsorption capacity and the best isotherm and kinetic fitting models are provided. Moreover, thermodynamic studies, regeneration studies, the mechanism of adsorption and the experimental conditions are also discussed in depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2016)
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