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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 396; doi:10.3390/ijms18020396

Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
2
Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hitoshi Sashiwa and Shinsuke Ifuku
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [887 KB, uploaded 13 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80–100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The reaction was accompanied by the release of water which was employed to investigate the reaction kinetics. Accordingly, the reaction rate followed the first-order model and Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was calculated to be 18 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the chitosan films were comprehensively studied. First, optimal curing conditions (84 °C, 93 min) were introduced through a central composite design. In order to evaluate the effects of adipic acid, the mechanical properties of physically cross-linked (uncured), chemically cross-linked (cured), and uncross-linked (prepared by acetic acid) films were compared. The use of adipic acid improved the tensile strength of uncured and chemically cross-linked films more than 60% and 113%, respectively. Finally, the effect of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) on the mechanical performance of cured films, in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, was investigated. The plasticized chitosan films reinforced by 5 wt % CNFs showed superior properties as a promising material for the development of chitosan-based biomaterials. View Full-Text
Keywords: acetic acid; adipic acid; chitosan; cross-linking; mechanical properties; nanocomposite film acetic acid; adipic acid; chitosan; cross-linking; mechanical properties; nanocomposite film
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Falamarzpour, P.; Behzad, T.; Zamani, A. Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 396.

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