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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7478-7492; doi:10.3390/ijms16047478

SLM Produced Porous Titanium Implant Improvements for Enhanced Vascularization and Osteoblast Seeding

1
Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, D-30559 Hannover, Germany
2
Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Rostock University Medical Center, D-18119 Rostock, Germany
3
Materials and Processes Department, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., D-30419 Hannover, Germany
4
Clinic for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Hannover Medical School, D-30625 Hannover, Germany
5
Institute for Biometry, Epidemiology and Information Processing, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, D-30559 Hannover, Germany
6
Division of Medicine Clinic III, Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Medicine, University of Rostock, D-18057 Rostock, Germany
7
Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, D-30823 Hannover, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander M. Seifalian
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 2 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2057 KB, uploaded 2 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

To improve well-known titanium implants, pores can be used for increasing bone formation and close bone-implant interface. Selective Laser Melting (SLM) enables the production of any geometry and was used for implant production with 250-µm pore size. The used pore size supports vessel ingrowth, as bone formation is strongly dependent on fast vascularization. Additionally, proangiogenic factors promote implant vascularization. To functionalize the titanium with proangiogenic factors, polycaprolactone (PCL) coating can be used. The following proangiogenic factors were examined: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12). As different surfaces lead to different cell reactions, titanium and PCL coating were compared. The growing into the porous titanium structure of primary osteoblasts was examined by cross sections. Primary osteoblasts seeded on the different surfaces were compared using Live Cell Imaging (LCI). Cross sections showed cells had proliferated, but not migrated after seven days. Although the cell count was lower on titanium PCL implants in LCI, the cell count and cell spreading area development showed promising results for titanium PCL implants. HMGB1 showed the highest migration capacity for stimulating the endothelial cell line. Future perspective would be the incorporation of HMGB1 into PCL polymer for the realization of a slow factor release. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium implant; selective laser melting; polycaprolactone; VEGF; HMGB1; CXCL12; cross section; live cell imaging; osteoblast; cell migration titanium implant; selective laser melting; polycaprolactone; VEGF; HMGB1; CXCL12; cross section; live cell imaging; osteoblast; cell migration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Matena, J.; Petersen, S.; Gieseke, M.; Kampmann, A.; Teske, M.; Beyerbach, M.; Escobar, H.M.; Haferkamp, H.; Gellrich, N.-C.; Nolte, I. SLM Produced Porous Titanium Implant Improvements for Enhanced Vascularization and Osteoblast Seeding. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 7478-7492.

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