Special Issue "Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs)"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)
In Gram-negative bacteria, three layers surround the cytoplasm: An inner membrane, a layer of peptidoglycan, and an outer membrane. The outer membrane is an asymmetric lipidic bilayer, with phospholipids on its inner surface, and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) on the outside, this being the major component of the outer leaflet, covering approximately nearly three quarters of the total outer cell surface.
All LPSs possess the same general chemical architecture, independently of the bacterial activity (pathogenic, symbiotic, commensal), ecological niches (human, animal, soil, plant, water), or growth conditions. Endotoxins are large amphiphilic molecules consisting of a hydrophilic polysaccharide part, and a covalently bound hydrophobic and highly conserved lipid component, termed lipid A (the endotoxin subunit). The polysaccharide part can be divided into two sub-domains: The internal and conserved, the core region, and one more external and highly variable, the O-specific chain, also named O-antigen for its immunogenic properties. LPSs are endotoxins, one of the most potent classes of activators of the mammalian immune system; they can be released from cell surfaces of bacteria during their multiplication, lysis, and death. LPS can acts through its biological center (lipid A component) on various cell types, of which macrophages and monocytes are the most important.
Prof. Dr. Juan M. Tomás
Manuscript Submission Information
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- chemical structure
- biological significance