Biophysical Analysis of Lipopolysaccharide Formulations for an Understanding of the Low Endotoxin Recovery (LER) Phenomenon
AbstractLipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) are complex and indispensable components of the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria. They represent stimuli for many biological effects with pathophysiological character. Recombinant therapeutic proteins that are manufactured using biotechnological processes are prone to LPS contaminations due to their ubiquitous occurrence. The maximum endotoxin load of recombinant therapeutic proteins must be below the pyrogenic threshold. Certain matrices that are commonly used for recombinant therapeutic proteins show a phenomenon called “Low Endotoxin Recovery (LER)”. LER is defined as the loss of detectable endotoxin activity over time using compendial Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assays when undiluted products are spiked with known amount of endotoxin standards. Because LER poses potential risks that endotoxin contaminations in products may be underestimated or undetected by the LAL assay, the United States (U.S.) Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) has recently started requesting that companies conduct endotoxin spike/hold recovery studies to determine whether a given biological product causes LER. Here, we have performed an analysis of different LPS preparations with relevant detergents studying their acyl chain phase transition, their aggregate structures, their size distributions, and binding affinity with a particular anti-endotoxin peptide, and correlating it with the respective data in the macrophage activation test. In this way, we have worked out biophysical parameters that are important for an understanding of LER. View Full-Text
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Correa, W.; Brandenburg, K.; Zähringer, U.; Ravuri, K.; Khan, T.; von Wintzingerode, F. Biophysical Analysis of Lipopolysaccharide Formulations for an Understanding of the Low Endotoxin Recovery (LER) Phenomenon. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2737.
Correa W, Brandenburg K, Zähringer U, Ravuri K, Khan T, von Wintzingerode F. Biophysical Analysis of Lipopolysaccharide Formulations for an Understanding of the Low Endotoxin Recovery (LER) Phenomenon. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(12):2737.Chicago/Turabian Style
Correa, Wilmar; Brandenburg, Klaus; Zähringer, Ulrich; Ravuri, Kishore; Khan, Tarik; von Wintzingerode, Friedrich. 2017. "Biophysical Analysis of Lipopolysaccharide Formulations for an Understanding of the Low Endotoxin Recovery (LER) Phenomenon." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 12: 2737.
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