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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(8), 3653-3666; doi:10.3390/ijerph10083653
Article

Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

1,* , 2,3,†
 and
1,4,†
1 WHO-CC Clinical Health Promotion Centre, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals—a part of Copenhagen University Hospital, The Capital Region, Nordre Fasanvej 57, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark 2 Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals—a part of Copenhagen University Hospital, The Capital Region, Nordre Fasanvej 57, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark 3 National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, DK-1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark 4 Clinical Health Promotion Centre, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Entrance. 108, Malmö SE 205 02, Sweden These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 June 2013 / Revised: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 16 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control in Vulnerable Population Groups)
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Abstract

Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group), older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.
Keywords: smoking cessation intervention; pregnancy; pregnant smokers; intensive programme; Gold Standard Programme (GSP); effectiveness; abstinence; prospective cohort study; national database; Denmark smoking cessation intervention; pregnancy; pregnant smokers; intensive programme; Gold Standard Programme (GSP); effectiveness; abstinence; prospective cohort study; national database; Denmark
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Rasmussen, M.; Heitmann, B.L.; Tønnesen, H. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3653-3666.

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