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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(11), 5257-5265; doi:10.3390/ijerph10115257
Article

Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology

1,* , 2,†
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 and 1,†
Received: 26 July 2013; in revised form: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control in Vulnerable Population Groups)
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Abstract: The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students’ (8–10 years old) urine. Sixty students indicated tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) (cotinine urine levels ≥ 5.0 ng/mL) and 85 did not. The evaluation of TEOAE of TSE students showed lower response levels, mainly on frequencies of 2.8 kHz on the right and left ears and 2.0 kHz on left ear and lower signal noise response levels, mainly on the 1.0 kHz and 1.4 kHz frequencies, when compared to controls that were not exposed to tobacco. The mean reduction observed in TEOAE of tobacco smoke exposure children was 2.1 dB SPL. These results have important implications on the damage to the cochlear structures and indicate a possible loss in hearing and hearing ability development.
Keywords: outer hair cells; spontaneous otoacoustic emissions; cochlea; growth and development; smoking; child; tobacco outer hair cells; spontaneous otoacoustic emissions; cochlea; growth and development; smoking; child; tobacco
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Durante, A.S.; Pucci, B.; Gudayol, N.; Massa, B.; Gameiro, M.; Lopes, C. Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 5257-5265.

AMA Style

Durante AS, Pucci B, Gudayol N, Massa B, Gameiro M, Lopes C. Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(11):5257-5265.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Durante, Alessandra S.; Pucci, Beatriz; Gudayol, Nicolly; Massa, Beatriz; Gameiro, Marcella; Lopes, Cristiane. 2013. "Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 11: 5257-5265.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert