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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4186-4199; doi:10.3390/ijerph10094186
Article

Gold Standard Program for Heavy Smokers in a Real-Life Setting

1,* , 2,†
, 3,4,†
 and 1,2,†
Received: 4 July 2013; in revised form: 22 August 2013 / Accepted: 30 August 2013 / Published: 9 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control in Vulnerable Population Groups)
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Abstract: Background: High-intensity smoking cessation programs generally lead to more continuous abstinence, however, lower rates of success have been reported among heavy smokers. The aim was to evaluate continuous abstinence among heavy smokers during the intensive 6-week Gold Standard Program (GSP) and to identify modifiable factors associated with continuous abstinence. Methods: In this nationwide clinical study based on 36,550 smokers attending an intensive cessation program in Denmark. Heavy smoking was defined as ≥7 points in the Fagerström Nicotine Dependency Test, smoking ≥20 cigarettes daily or ≥20 pack-years. Results: Overall, 28% had a Fagerström score ≥7 points, 58% smoked ≥20 cigarettes daily and 68% smoked ≥20 pack-years. Continuous abstinence was 33% in responders (6-months response rate: 78%); however, abstinence was approximately 1–6% lower in the heavy smokers than the overall population. Attending GSP with an individual format (vs. group/other, OR 1.23–1.44); in a hospital setting (vs. pharmacy/municipality services, OR 1.05–1.11); and being compliant (attending the planned meetings OR 4.36–4.89) were associated with abstinence. Abstinence decreased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing smoking severity. Conclusions: Abstinence after GSP was 1–6% lower in the heavy smokers than in the overall study population. Modifiable factors may be used for small improvements in continued abstinence. However attempts to improve compliance seemed especially promising.
Keywords: smoking cessation; abstinence; heavy smokers; intensive program; nationwide database; group program; individual program; Denmark smoking cessation; abstinence; heavy smokers; intensive program; nationwide database; group program; individual program; Denmark
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Neumann, T.; Rasmussen, M.; Heitmann, B.L.; Tønnesen, H. Gold Standard Program for Heavy Smokers in a Real-Life Setting. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4186-4199.

AMA Style

Neumann T, Rasmussen M, Heitmann BL, Tønnesen H. Gold Standard Program for Heavy Smokers in a Real-Life Setting. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(9):4186-4199.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit L.; Tønnesen, Hanne. 2013. "Gold Standard Program for Heavy Smokers in a Real-Life Setting." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 9: 4186-4199.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert