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Public Place Smoke-Free Regulations, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Related Beliefs, Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices among Chinese Urban Residents
Center for Tobacco Control Research, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China
School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China
Boston Medical Center, Boston University Medical Campus, Boston, MA 02118, USA
Injury Control Research Center and Department of Epidemiology (School of Public Health), West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Beijing 100005, China
Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2012; in revised form: 28 May 2013 / Accepted: 29 May 2013 / Published: 7 June 2013
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou) as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing) as the comparison. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and implemented at two time points across a 20-month interval. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic methods were considered in analyses. Multiple regression procedures were performed in examining variation between final and baseline measures. Results: Smoke-free regulations in the intervention city were associated with a significant decline in personal secondhand smoke exposure in government buildings, buses or taxis, and restaurants, but there was no change in such exposure in healthcare facilities and schools. In terms of personal smoking beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices, the only significant change was in giving quitting advice to proximal family members. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between implementation of smoke-free regulations in a city and inhibition of secondhand tobacco smoking exposure in public places. However, any such impact was limited. Effective tobacco control in China will require a combination of strong public health education and enforcement of regulations.
Keywords: tobacco control; smoke-free regulations; secondhand smoke
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MDPI and ACS Style
Yang, T.; Abdullah, A.S.; Li, L.; Rockett, I.R.H.; Lin, Y.; Ying, J.; Guo, W.; Wu, D.; Li, M. Public Place Smoke-Free Regulations, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Related Beliefs, Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices among Chinese Urban Residents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 2370-2383.
Yang T, Abdullah AS, Li L, Rockett IRH, Lin Y, Ying J, Guo W, Wu D, Li M. Public Place Smoke-Free Regulations, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Related Beliefs, Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices among Chinese Urban Residents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(6):2370-2383.
Yang, Tingzhong; Abdullah, Abu S.; Li, Li; Rockett, Ian R.H.; Lin, Yan; Ying, Jun; Guo, Wei; Wu, Dan; Li, Mu. 2013. "Public Place Smoke-Free Regulations, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Related Beliefs, Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices among Chinese Urban Residents." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 6: 2370-2383.