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Special Issue "Electromagnetic Fields and Health"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Martin Röösli

Head of the Unit for Environmental Exposures and Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +41 61 284 81 05
Interests: exposure assessment studies, aetiological research and health risk assessments in the area of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, passive smoking, noise exposure, ambient air pollution, climate change and pesticides

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are ubiquitously distributed in our everyday environment. EMFs originate from numerous close-to-body sources, such as small electrical and communication devices, as well as various environmental sources, such as power lines and broadcast transmitters. Rapid developments and changes concerning EMF exposure, in particular in the radio and microwave frequency range, are a challenge for epidemiological research and risk assessment. Research needs in this field have been summarized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in their research agendas discussing extremely low frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) fields.

This issue aims to present recent advances in epidemiological research on EMF, with a special focus on the extremely low frequency (ELF), intermediate frequency (IF), and radiofrequency (RF) ranges. The issue welcomes papers addressing the health effects of different types of EMF. Further, innovative exposure assessment studies that contribute to a better understanding of a population’s exposure to close-to-body and environmental sources are highly welcome. Also, methodological work, including modeling, measurement or simulation studies, as well as novel approaches for risk assessments, are longed for. This Special Issue targets current developments in EMF epidemiology and provides a forum for cutting edge contributions to the literature.

Dr. Martin Röösli
Guest Editor

Submission

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF)
  • radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF)
  • EMF exposure assessment
  • EMF risk assessment
  • EMF modeling
  • EMF measurements
  • neurodevelopment
  • cancer
  • electromagnetic hypersensitivity
  • neurodegenerative diseases

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure and Parkinson’s Disease—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 7348-7356; doi:10.3390/ijerph120707348
Received: 22 May 2015 / Revised: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1060 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: To examine the association between occupational exposure to extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and Parkinson’s disease. Methods: We systematically searched publications reporting risk estimates of Parkinson’s disease in workers exposed to ELF-MF. Summary relative risks were obtained with random effects meta-analysis.
[...] Read more.
Objective: To examine the association between occupational exposure to extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and Parkinson’s disease. Methods: We systematically searched publications reporting risk estimates of Parkinson’s disease in workers exposed to ELF-MF. Summary relative risks were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Results: We included 11 studies. To assign exposure, four studies evaluated occupational records, four used census, interview or questionnaire information and three used death certificates. Risk of Parkinson’s disease was not elevated in workers exposed to ELF-MF with a summary relative risk of 1.05, 95% CI 0.98–1.13. Conclusions: Overall, there was no evidence that the exposure to ELF-MF increases the risk of Parkinson’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Electromagnetic Interference with Active Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs) Caused by the Qi A13 Design Wireless Charging Board
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 5886-5904; doi:10.3390/ijerph120605886
Received: 24 March 2015 / Revised: 12 May 2015 / Accepted: 22 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electromagnetic interference is a concern for people wearing cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). The aim of this study was to assess the electromagnetic compatibility between CIEDs and the magnetic field of a common wireless charging technology. To do so the voltage induced in
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Electromagnetic interference is a concern for people wearing cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). The aim of this study was to assess the electromagnetic compatibility between CIEDs and the magnetic field of a common wireless charging technology. To do so the voltage induced in CIEDs by Qi A13 design magnetic fields were measured and compared with the performance limits set by ISO 14117. In order to carry this out a measuring circuit was developed which can be connected with unipolar or bipolar pacemaker leads. The measuring system was positioned at the four most common implantation sites in a torso phantom filled with physiological saline solution. The phantom was exposed by using Helmholtz coils from 5 µT to 27 µT with 111 kHz sine‑bursts or by using a Qi A13 design wireless charging board (Qi‑A13‑Board) in two operating modes “power transfer” and “pinging”. With the Helmholtz coils the lowest magnetic flux density at which the performance limit was exceeded is 11 µT. With the Qi‑A13‑Board in power transfer mode 10.8% and in pinging mode 45.7% (2.2% at 10 cm distance) of the performance limit were reached at maximum. In neither of the scrutinized cases, did the voltage induced by the Qi‑A13‑Board exceed the performance limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Study of the Influence of the Orientation of a 50-Hz Magnetic Field on Fetal Exposure Using Polynomial Chaos Decomposition
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 5934-5953; doi:10.3390/ijerph120605934
Received: 31 March 2015 / Accepted: 22 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human exposure modelling is a complex topic, because in a realistic exposure scenario, several parameters (e.g., the source, the orientation of incident fields, the morphology of subjects) vary and influence the dose. Deterministic dosimetry, so far used to analyze human exposure to electromagnetic
[...] Read more.
Human exposure modelling is a complex topic, because in a realistic exposure scenario, several parameters (e.g., the source, the orientation of incident fields, the morphology of subjects) vary and influence the dose. Deterministic dosimetry, so far used to analyze human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), is highly time consuming if the previously-mentioned variations are considered. Stochastic dosimetry is an alternative method to build analytical approximations of exposure at a lower computational cost. In this study, it was used to assess the influence of magnetic flux density (B) orientation on fetal exposure at 50 Hz by polynomial chaos (PC). A PC expansion of induced electric field (E) in each fetal tissue at different gestational ages (GA) was built as a function of B orientation. Maximum E in each fetal tissue and at each GA was estimated for different exposure configurations and compared with the limits of the International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines 2010. PC theory resulted in an efficient tool to build accurate approximations of E in each fetal tissue. B orientation strongly influenced E, with a variability across tissues from 10% to 43% with respect to the mean value. However, varying B orientation, maximum E in each fetal tissue was below the limits of ICNIRP 2010 at all GAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Development of an RF-EMF Exposure Surrogate for Epidemiologic Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5634-5656; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505634
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (974 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Exposure assessment is a crucial part in studying potential effects of RF-EMF. Using data from the HERMES study on adolescents, we developed an integrative exposure surrogate combining near-field and far-field RF-EMF exposure in a single brain and whole-body exposure measure. Contributions from far-field
[...] Read more.
Exposure assessment is a crucial part in studying potential effects of RF-EMF. Using data from the HERMES study on adolescents, we developed an integrative exposure surrogate combining near-field and far-field RF-EMF exposure in a single brain and whole-body exposure measure. Contributions from far-field sources were modelled by propagation modelling and multivariable regression modelling using personal measurements. Contributions from near-field sources were assessed from both, questionnaires and mobile phone operator records. Mean cumulative brain and whole-body doses were 1559.7 mJ/kg and 339.9 mJ/kg per day, respectively. 98.4% of the brain dose originated from near-field sources, mainly from GSM mobile phone calls (93.1%) and from DECT phone calls (4.8%). Main contributors to the whole-body dose were GSM mobile phone calls (69.0%), use of computer, laptop and tablet connected to WLAN (12.2%) and data traffic on the mobile phone via WLAN (6.5%). The exposure from mobile phone base stations contributed 1.8% to the whole-body dose, while uplink exposure from other people’s mobile phones contributed 3.6%. In conclusion, the proposed approach is considered useful to combine near-field and far-field exposure to an integrative exposure surrogate for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain about exposure contributions from various near-field and far-field sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Radio Hazard Safety Assessment for Marine Ship Transmitters: Measurements Using a New Data Collection Method and Comparison with ICNIRP and ARPANSA Limits
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5338-5354; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505338
Received: 11 March 2015 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
PDF Full-text (410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted from marine ship transmitters. In this study, we recorded the radio frequency (RF) electric field (EF) levels emitted from transmitters from a marine vessel focusing on the areas normally occupied by
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We investigated the levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted from marine ship transmitters. In this study, we recorded the radio frequency (RF) electric field (EF) levels emitted from transmitters from a marine vessel focusing on the areas normally occupied by crew members and passengers. Previous studies considered radiation hazard safety assessment for marine vessels with a limited number of transmitters, such as very high-frequency (VHF) transceivers, radar and communication transmitters. In our investigation, EF levels from seven radio transmitters were measured, including: VHF, medium frequency/high frequency (MF/HF), satellite communication (Sat-Com C), AISnavigation, radar X-band and radar S-band. Measurements were carried out in a 40 m-long, three-level ship (upper deck, bridge deck and bridge roof) at 12 different locations. We developed a new data-collection protocol and performed it under 11 different scenarios to observe and measure the radiation emissions from all of the transmitters. In total, 528 EF field measurements were collected and averaged over all three levels of the marine ship with RF transmitters: the measured electric fields were the lowest on the upper deck (0.82–0.86 V/m), the highest on the bridge roof (2.15–3.70 V/m) and in between on the bridge deck (0.47–1.15 V/m). The measured EF levels were then assessed for compliance with the occupational and general public reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) standards. The ICNIRP and the ARPANSA limits for the general public were exceeded on the bridge roof; nevertheless, the occupational limits were respected everywhere. The measured EF levels, hence, complied with the ICNIRP guidelines and the ARPANSA standards. In this paper, we provide a new data collection model for future surveys, which could be conducted with larger samples to verify our observations. Furthermore, this new method could be useful as a reference for researchers and industry professionals without direct access to the necessary equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Early Exposure to Intermediate-Frequency Magnetic Fields Alters Brain Biomarkers without Histopathological Changes in Adult Mice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 4406-4421; doi:10.3390/ijerph120404406
Received: 22 February 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently we have reported that intermediate-frequency magnetic field (IF-MF) exposure transiently altered the mRNA expression levels of memory function-related genes in the hippocampi of adult male mice. However, the effects of IF-MF exposure during brain development on neurological biomarkers have not yet been
[...] Read more.
Recently we have reported that intermediate-frequency magnetic field (IF-MF) exposure transiently altered the mRNA expression levels of memory function-related genes in the hippocampi of adult male mice. However, the effects of IF-MF exposure during brain development on neurological biomarkers have not yet been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IF-MF exposure during development on neurological and immunological markers in the mouse hippocampus in 3- and 7-week-old male mice. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to IF-MF (21 kHz, 3.8 mT) for one hour per day from organogenesis period day 7 to 17. At adolescence, some IF-MF-exposed mice were further divided into exposure, recovery, and sham-exposure groups. The adolescent-exposure groups were exposed again to IF-MF from postnatal day 27 to 48. The expression of mRNA in the hippocampi was examined using a real-time RT-PCR method, and microglia activation was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression levels of NR1 and NR2B as well as transcription factors (CaMKIV, CREB1), inflammatory mediators (COX2, IL-1 b,TNF-α), and the oxidative stress marker heme-oxygenase (HO)-1 were significantly increased in the IF-MF-exposed mice, compared with the control group, in the 7-week-old mice, but not in the 3-week-old mice. Microglia activation was not different between the control and other groups. This study provides the first evidence that early exposure to IF-MF reversibly affects the NMDA receptor, its related signaling pathways, and inflammatory mediators in the hippocampus of young adult mice; these changes are transient and recover after termination of exposure without histopathological changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Job Exposure Matrix for Electric Shock Risks with Their Uncertainties
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 3889-3902; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403889
Received: 15 February 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 8 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present an update to an electric shock job exposure matrix (JEM) that assigned ordinal electric shocks exposure for 501 occupational titles based on electric shocks and electrocutions from two available data sources and expert judgment. Using formal expert elicitation and starting with
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We present an update to an electric shock job exposure matrix (JEM) that assigned ordinal electric shocks exposure for 501 occupational titles based on electric shocks and electrocutions from two available data sources and expert judgment. Using formal expert elicitation and starting with data on electric injury, we arrive at a consensus-based JEM. In our new JEM, we quantify exposures by adding three new dimensions: (1) the elicited median proportion; (2) the elicited 25th percentile; and (3) and the elicited 75th percentile of those experiencing occupational electric shocks in a working lifetime. We construct the relative interquartile range (rIQR) based on uncertainty interval and the median. Finally, we describe overall results, highlight examples demonstrating the impact of cut point selection on exposure assignment, and evaluate potential impacts of such selection on epidemiologic studies of the electric work environment. In conclusion, novel methods allowed for consistent exposure estimates that move from qualitative to quantitative measures in this population-based JEM. Overlapping ranges of median exposure in various categories reflect our limited knowledge about this exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Evaluation of Genotoxic Effects under Magnetic Resonant Coupling Wireless Power Transfer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 3853-3863; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403853
Received: 9 February 2015 / Revised: 21 March 2015 / Accepted: 31 March 2015 / Published: 7 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology using the resonant coupling phenomenon has been widely studied, but there are very few studies concerning the possible relationship between WPT exposure and human health. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT has
[...] Read more.
Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology using the resonant coupling phenomenon has been widely studied, but there are very few studies concerning the possible relationship between WPT exposure and human health. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT has genotoxic effects on WI38VA13 subcloned 2RA human fibroblast cells. WPT exposure was performed using a helical coil-based exposure system designed to transfer power with 85.4% efficiency at a 12.5-MHz resonant frequency. The magnetic field at the positions of the cell culture dishes is approximately twice the reference level for occupational exposure as stated in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The specific absorption rate at the positions of the cell culture dishes matches the respective reference levels stated in the ICNIRP guidelines. For assessment of genotoxicity, we studied cell growth, cell cycle distribution, DNA strand breaks using the comet assay, micronucleus formation, and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene mutation, and did not detect any significant effects between the WPT-exposed cells and control cells. Our results suggest that WPT exposure under the conditions of the ICNIRP guidelines does not cause detectable cellular genotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Foetal Exposure to the Homogeneous Magnetic Field Harmonic Spectrum Generated by Electricity Transmission and Distribution Networks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 3667-3690; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403667
Received: 6 February 2015 / Revised: 23 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 1 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the last decades studies addressing the effects of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) have pointed out a possible link between those fields emitted by power lines and childhood leukaemia. They have also stressed the importance of also including in
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During the last decades studies addressing the effects of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) have pointed out a possible link between those fields emitted by power lines and childhood leukaemia. They have also stressed the importance of also including in the assessment the contribution of frequency components, namely harmonics, other than the fundamental one. Based on the spectrum of supply voltage networks allowed by the European standard for electricity quality assessment, in this study the exposure of high-resolution three-dimensional models of foetuses to the whole harmonic content of a uniform magnetic field with a fundamental frequency of 50 Hz, was assessed. The results show that the main contribution in terms of induced electric fields to the foetal exposure is given by the fundamental frequency component. The harmonic components add some contributions to the overall level of electric fields, however, due to the extremely low permitted amplitude of the harmonic components with respect to the fundamental, their amplitudes are low. The level of the induced electric field is also much lower than the limits suggested by the guidelines for general public exposure, when the amplitude of the incident magnetic field is set at the maximum permitted level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Impact of a Small Cell on the RF-EMF Exposure in a Train
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 2639-2652; doi:10.3390/ijerph120302639
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 6 February 2015 / Accepted: 20 February 2015 / Published: 27 February 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1702 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The deployment of a miniature mobile-phone base station or small cell in a train car significantly improves the coverage and the capacity of a mobile network service on the train. However, the impact of the small cell on the passengers’ exposure to radio-frequency
[...] Read more.
The deployment of a miniature mobile-phone base station or small cell in a train car significantly improves the coverage and the capacity of a mobile network service on the train. However, the impact of the small cell on the passengers’ exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is unknown. In this study, we assessed experimentally the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone user who is either connected to the outdoor macrocell network or to an in-train small cell, while traveling on the train, by means of the absorbed-dose concept, which combines the base station downlink exposure with the mobile-phone uplink exposure. For Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 1800 MHz, we found that by connecting to a small cell, the brain exposure of the user could realistically be reduced by a factor 35 and the whole-body exposure by a factor 11. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Childhood Leukemia and 50 Hz Magnetic Fields: Findings from the Italian SETIL Case-Control Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 2184-2204; doi:10.3390/ijerph120202184
Received: 15 December 2014 / Revised: 29 January 2015 / Accepted: 5 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We report on an Italian case-control study on childhood leukemia and exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF). Eligible for inclusion were 745 leukemia cases, aged 0–10 years at diagnosis in 1998–2001, and 1475 sex- and age-matched population controls. Parents of 683
[...] Read more.
We report on an Italian case-control study on childhood leukemia and exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF). Eligible for inclusion were 745 leukemia cases, aged 0–10 years at diagnosis in 1998–2001, and 1475 sex- and age-matched population controls. Parents of 683 cases and 1044 controls (92% vs. 71%) were interviewed. ELF-MF measurements (24–48 h), in the child’s bedroom of the dwelling inhabited one year before diagnosis, were available for 412 cases and 587 controls included in the main conditional regression analyses. The magnetic field induction was 0.04 μT on average (geometric mean), with 0.6% of cases and 1.6% of controls exposed to >0.3 μT. The impact of changes in the statistical model, exposure metric, and data-set restriction criteria was explored via sensitivity analyses. No exposure-disease association was observed in analyses based on continuous exposure, while analyses based on categorical variables were characterized by incoherent exposure-outcome relationships. In conclusion, our results may be affected by several sources of bias and they are noninformative at exposure levels >0.3 μT. Nonetheless, the study may contribute to future meta- or pooled analyses. Furthermore, exposure levels among population controls are useful to estimate attributable risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Circadian Rhythmicity of Antioxidant Markers in Rats Exposed to 1.8 GHz Radiofrequency Fields
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 2071-2087; doi:10.3390/ijerph120202071
Received: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The potential health risks of exposure to Radiofrequency Fields (RF) emitted by mobile phones are currently of considerable public interest, such as the adverse effects on the circadian rhythmicities of biological systems. To determine whether circadian rhythms of the plasma antioxidants (Mel,
[...] Read more.
Background: The potential health risks of exposure to Radiofrequency Fields (RF) emitted by mobile phones are currently of considerable public interest, such as the adverse effects on the circadian rhythmicities of biological systems. To determine whether circadian rhythms of the plasma antioxidants (Mel, GSH-Px and SOD) are affected by RF, we performed a study on male Sprague Dawley rats exposed to the 1.8 GHz RF. Methods: All animals were divided into seven groups. The animals in six groups were exposed to 1.8 GHz RF (201.7 μW/cm2 power density, 0.05653 W/kg specific absorption rate) at a specific period of the day (3, 7, 11, 15, 19 and 23 h GMT, respectively), for 2 h/day for 32 consecutive days. The rats in the seventh group were used as sham-exposed controls. At the end of last RF exposure, blood samples were collected from each rat every 4 h (total period of 24 h) and also at similar times from sham-exposed animals. The concentrations of three antioxidants (Mel, GSH-Px and SOD) were determined. The data in RF-exposed rats were compared with those in sham-exposed animals. Results: circadian rhythms in the synthesis of Mel and antioxidant enzymes, GSH-Px and SOD, were shifted in RF-exposed rats compared to sham-exposed animals: the Mel, GSH-Px and SOD levels were significantly decreased when RF exposure was given at 23 and 3 h GMT. Conclusion: The overall results indicate that there may be adverse effects of RF exposure on antioxidant function, in terms of both the daily antioxidative levels, as well as the circadian rhythmicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields from Diesel, Gasoline and Hybrid Cars under Controlled Conditions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1651-1666; doi:10.3390/ijerph120201651
Received: 29 December 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2015 / Published: 30 January 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1098 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study characterizes extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) levels in 10 car models. Extensive measurements were conducted in three diesel, four gasoline, and three hybrid cars, under similar controlled conditions and negligible background fields. Averaged over all four seats under various
[...] Read more.
This study characterizes extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) levels in 10 car models. Extensive measurements were conducted in three diesel, four gasoline, and three hybrid cars, under similar controlled conditions and negligible background fields. Averaged over all four seats under various driving scenarios the fields were lowest in diesel cars (0.02 μT), higher for gasoline (0.04–0.05 μT) and highest in hybrids (0.06–0.09 μT), but all were in-line with daily exposures from other sources. Hybrid cars had the highest mean and 95th percentile MF levels, and an especially large percentage of measurements above 0.2 μT. These parameters were also higher for moving conditions compared to standing while idling or revving at 2500 RPM and higher still at 80 km/h compared to 40 km/h. Fields in non-hybrid cars were higher at the front seats, while in hybrid cars they were higher at the back seats, particularly the back right seat where 16%–69% of measurements were greater than 0.2 μT. As our results do not include low frequency fields (below 30 Hz) that might be generated by tire rotation, we suggest that net currents flowing through the cars’ metallic chassis may be a possible source of MF. Larger surveys in standardized and well-described settings should be conducted with different types of vehicles and with spectral analysis of fields including lower frequencies due to magnetization of tires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Effect of an Intermediate-Frequency Magnetic Field of 23 kHz at 2 mT on Chemotaxis and Phagocytosis in Neutrophil-Like Differentiated Human HL-60 Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 9649-9659; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909649
Received: 7 August 2014 / Revised: 2 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 17 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1087 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Public concerns about potential health risks of intermediate-frequency (IF) electromagnetic fields are increasing, especially as the use of induction-heating cooktops has spread extensively in Japan and Europe. In order to investigate the properties of IF electromagnetic fields, we examined the effect of exposure
[...] Read more.
Public concerns about potential health risks of intermediate-frequency (IF) electromagnetic fields are increasing, especially as the use of induction-heating cooktops has spread extensively in Japan and Europe. In order to investigate the properties of IF electromagnetic fields, we examined the effect of exposure to a 23-kHz IF magnetic field of 2 mT for 2, 3, or 4 h on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis using differentiated human HL-60 cells. Compared with sham exposure, exposure to the IF magnetic field had no effect on neutrophil chemotaxis or phagocytosis. Previous studies demonstrated that exposure to a 23-kHz IF magnetic field of 2 mT (about 74-times the maximum value recommended by the International Commission for Nonionizing Radiation Protection guidelines) may affect the first-line immune responses in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the effects of IF magnetic fields on cellular immune responses. We found that exposure to an IF magnetic field of 2 mT has minimal if any effect on either the chemotaxis or phagocytic activity of neutrophil-like human HL-60 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle EMF Monitoring—Concepts, Activities, Gaps and Options
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 9460-9479; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909460
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 August 2014 / Published: 11 September 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) is a cause of concern for many people. The topic will likely remain for the foreseeable future on the scientific and political agenda, since emissions continue to change in characteristics and levels due to new infrastructure deployments, smart
[...] Read more.
Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) is a cause of concern for many people. The topic will likely remain for the foreseeable future on the scientific and political agenda, since emissions continue to change in characteristics and levels due to new infrastructure deployments, smart environments and novel wireless devices. Until now, systematic and coordinated efforts to monitor EMF exposure are rare. Furthermore, virtually nothing is known about personal exposure levels. This lack of knowledge is detrimental for any evidence-based risk, exposure and health policy, management and communication. The main objective of the paper is to review the current state of EMF exposure monitoring activities in Europe, to comment on the scientific challenges and deficiencies, and to describe appropriate strategies and tools for EMF exposure assessment and monitoring to be used to support epidemiological health research and to help policy makers, administrators, industry and consumer representatives to base their decisions and communication activities on facts and data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Odor and Noise Intolerance in Persons with Self-Reported Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 8794-8805; doi:10.3390/ijerph110908794
Received: 11 May 2014 / Revised: 10 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lack of confirmation of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and triggered by EMF exposure has highlighted the role of individual factors. Prior observations indicate intolerance to other types of environmental exposures among persons with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). This study assessed differences in
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Lack of confirmation of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and triggered by EMF exposure has highlighted the role of individual factors. Prior observations indicate intolerance to other types of environmental exposures among persons with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). This study assessed differences in odor and noise intolerance between persons with EHS and healthy controls by use of subscales and global measures of the Chemical Sensitivity Scale (CSS) and the Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS). The EHS group scored significantly higher than the controls on all CSS and NSS scales. Correlation coefficients between CSS and NSS scores ranged from 0.60 to 0.65 across measures. The findings suggest an association between EHS and odor and noise intolerance, encouraging further investigation of individual factors for understanding EMF-related symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
Open AccessArticle Time Averaged Transmitter Power and Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phone Base Stations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 8025-8037; doi:10.3390/ijerph110808025
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 31 July 2014 / Published: 7 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP), is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order
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Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP), is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order to determine temporal averages of the exposure, corresponding averages of the ERP have to be available. These can be determined as duty factors, the ratios of the time-averaged power to the maximum output power according to the transmitter setting. We determine duty factors for UMTS from the data of 37 base stations in the Swisscom network. The UMTS base stations sample contains sites from different regions of Switzerland and also different site types (rural/suburban/urban/hotspot). Averaged over all regions and site types, a UMTS duty factor  for the 24 h-average is obtained, i.e., the average output power corresponds to about a third of the maximum power. We also give duty factors for GSM based on simple approximations and a lower limit for LTE estimated from the base load on the signalling channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview International and National Expert Group Evaluations: Biological/Health Effects of Radiofrequency Fields
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 9376-9408; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909376
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 27 August 2014 / Accepted: 27 August 2014 / Published: 10 September 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects
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The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the “weight of scientific evidence” approach) for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)

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