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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 2071-2087; doi:10.3390/ijerph120202071

Circadian Rhythmicity of Antioxidant Markers in Rats Exposed to 1.8 GHz Radiofrequency Fields

1
School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China
2
Department of Biological Science and Technology, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China
3
School of Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martin Röösli
Received: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
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Abstract

Background: The potential health risks of exposure to Radiofrequency Fields (RF) emitted by mobile phones are currently of considerable public interest, such as the adverse effects on the circadian rhythmicities of biological systems. To determine whether circadian rhythms of the plasma antioxidants (Mel, GSH-Px and SOD) are affected by RF, we performed a study on male Sprague Dawley rats exposed to the 1.8 GHz RF. Methods: All animals were divided into seven groups. The animals in six groups were exposed to 1.8 GHz RF (201.7 μW/cm2 power density, 0.05653 W/kg specific absorption rate) at a specific period of the day (3, 7, 11, 15, 19 and 23 h GMT, respectively), for 2 h/day for 32 consecutive days. The rats in the seventh group were used as sham-exposed controls. At the end of last RF exposure, blood samples were collected from each rat every 4 h (total period of 24 h) and also at similar times from sham-exposed animals. The concentrations of three antioxidants (Mel, GSH-Px and SOD) were determined. The data in RF-exposed rats were compared with those in sham-exposed animals. Results: circadian rhythms in the synthesis of Mel and antioxidant enzymes, GSH-Px and SOD, were shifted in RF-exposed rats compared to sham-exposed animals: the Mel, GSH-Px and SOD levels were significantly decreased when RF exposure was given at 23 and 3 h GMT. Conclusion: The overall results indicate that there may be adverse effects of RF exposure on antioxidant function, in terms of both the daily antioxidative levels, as well as the circadian rhythmicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: radio frequency; circadian rhythmicity; antioxidant markers; Mel; SOD; GSH-Px radio frequency; circadian rhythmicity; antioxidant markers; Mel; SOD; GSH-Px
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cao, H.; Qin, F.; Liu, X.; Wang, J.; Cao, Y.; Tong, J.; Zhao, H. Circadian Rhythmicity of Antioxidant Markers in Rats Exposed to 1.8 GHz Radiofrequency Fields. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 2071-2087.

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