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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5634-5656; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505634

Development of an RF-EMF Exposure Surrogate for Epidemiologic Research

2
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland
3
ARIAS umwelt.forschung.beratung, Gutenbergstrasse 40B, CH-3011 Bern, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [974 KB, uploaded 22 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

Exposure assessment is a crucial part in studying potential effects of RF-EMF. Using data from the HERMES study on adolescents, we developed an integrative exposure surrogate combining near-field and far-field RF-EMF exposure in a single brain and whole-body exposure measure. Contributions from far-field sources were modelled by propagation modelling and multivariable regression modelling using personal measurements. Contributions from near-field sources were assessed from both, questionnaires and mobile phone operator records. Mean cumulative brain and whole-body doses were 1559.7 mJ/kg and 339.9 mJ/kg per day, respectively. 98.4% of the brain dose originated from near-field sources, mainly from GSM mobile phone calls (93.1%) and from DECT phone calls (4.8%). Main contributors to the whole-body dose were GSM mobile phone calls (69.0%), use of computer, laptop and tablet connected to WLAN (12.2%) and data traffic on the mobile phone via WLAN (6.5%). The exposure from mobile phone base stations contributed 1.8% to the whole-body dose, while uplink exposure from other people’s mobile phones contributed 3.6%. In conclusion, the proposed approach is considered useful to combine near-field and far-field exposure to an integrative exposure surrogate for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain about exposure contributions from various near-field and far-field sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: exposure assessment; RF-EMF; mobile phone; adolescents; dose calculation exposure assessment; RF-EMF; mobile phone; adolescents; dose calculation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Roser, K.; Schoeni, A.; Bürgi, A.; Röösli, M. Development of an RF-EMF Exposure Surrogate for Epidemiologic Research. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 5634-5656.

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