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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 4406-4421; doi:10.3390/ijerph120404406

Early Exposure to Intermediate-Frequency Magnetic Fields Alters Brain Biomarkers without Histopathological Changes in Adult Mice

1
Center for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
2
Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, 2-3-6 Minami, Wako City, Saitama 351-0197, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martin Röösli
Received: 22 February 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
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Abstract

Recently we have reported that intermediate-frequency magnetic field (IF-MF) exposure transiently altered the mRNA expression levels of memory function-related genes in the hippocampi of adult male mice. However, the effects of IF-MF exposure during brain development on neurological biomarkers have not yet been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IF-MF exposure during development on neurological and immunological markers in the mouse hippocampus in 3- and 7-week-old male mice. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to IF-MF (21 kHz, 3.8 mT) for one hour per day from organogenesis period day 7 to 17. At adolescence, some IF-MF-exposed mice were further divided into exposure, recovery, and sham-exposure groups. The adolescent-exposure groups were exposed again to IF-MF from postnatal day 27 to 48. The expression of mRNA in the hippocampi was examined using a real-time RT-PCR method, and microglia activation was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression levels of NR1 and NR2B as well as transcription factors (CaMKIV, CREB1), inflammatory mediators (COX2, IL-1 b,TNF-α), and the oxidative stress marker heme-oxygenase (HO)-1 were significantly increased in the IF-MF-exposed mice, compared with the control group, in the 7-week-old mice, but not in the 3-week-old mice. Microglia activation was not different between the control and other groups. This study provides the first evidence that early exposure to IF-MF reversibly affects the NMDA receptor, its related signaling pathways, and inflammatory mediators in the hippocampus of young adult mice; these changes are transient and recover after termination of exposure without histopathological changes. View Full-Text
Keywords: intermediate frequency electromagnetic field; murine developmental period; hippocampus; NMDA receptor; inflammatory markers intermediate frequency electromagnetic field; murine developmental period; hippocampus; NMDA receptor; inflammatory markers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Win-Shwe, T.-T.; Ohtani, S.; Ushiyama, A.; Kunugita, N. Early Exposure to Intermediate-Frequency Magnetic Fields Alters Brain Biomarkers without Histopathological Changes in Adult Mice. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4406-4421.

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