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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 8025-8037; doi:10.3390/ijerph110808025

Time Averaged Transmitter Power and Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phone Base Stations

1
ARIAS umwelt.forschung.beratung, Gutenbergstrasse 40B, CH-3011 Bern, Switzerland
2
Swisscom (Switzerland) Ltd., Innovation, Mobile Access, Ey. 10, CH-3063 Ittigen, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 31 July 2014 / Published: 7 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
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Abstract

Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP), is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order to determine temporal averages of the exposure, corresponding averages of the ERP have to be available. These can be determined as duty factors, the ratios of the time-averaged power to the maximum output power according to the transmitter setting. We determine duty factors for UMTS from the data of 37 base stations in the Swisscom network. The UMTS base stations sample contains sites from different regions of Switzerland and also different site types (rural/suburban/urban/hotspot). Averaged over all regions and site types, a UMTS duty factor for the 24 h-average is obtained, i.e., the average output power corresponds to about a third of the maximum power. We also give duty factors for GSM based on simple approximations and a lower limit for LTE estimated from the base load on the signalling channels. View Full-Text
Keywords: radio frequency electromagnetic fields; EMF exposure assessment; EMF modeling radio frequency electromagnetic fields; EMF exposure assessment; EMF modeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bürgi, A.; Scanferla, D.; Lehmann, H. Time Averaged Transmitter Power and Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phone Base Stations. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 8025-8037.

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