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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 9460-9479; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909460

EMF Monitoring—Concepts, Activities, Gaps and Options

1
Swiss Research Foundation for Electricity and Mobile Communication, c/o Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH Zürich), Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
2
Institute for Electromagnetic Fields, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH Zürich), Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
3
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Socinstrasse 59, Postfach, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
4
University of Basel, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
5
Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 August 2014 / Published: 11 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Fields and Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [354 KB, uploaded 11 September 2014]

Abstract

Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) is a cause of concern for many people. The topic will likely remain for the foreseeable future on the scientific and political agenda, since emissions continue to change in characteristics and levels due to new infrastructure deployments, smart environments and novel wireless devices. Until now, systematic and coordinated efforts to monitor EMF exposure are rare. Furthermore, virtually nothing is known about personal exposure levels. This lack of knowledge is detrimental for any evidence-based risk, exposure and health policy, management and communication. The main objective of the paper is to review the current state of EMF exposure monitoring activities in Europe, to comment on the scientific challenges and deficiencies, and to describe appropriate strategies and tools for EMF exposure assessment and monitoring to be used to support epidemiological health research and to help policy makers, administrators, industry and consumer representatives to base their decisions and communication activities on facts and data. View Full-Text
Keywords: electromagnetic fields; exposure monitoring; exposure metrics; exposure assessment; monitoring paradigm; personal exposure; exposure policy; epidemiology; public health policy electromagnetic fields; exposure monitoring; exposure metrics; exposure assessment; monitoring paradigm; personal exposure; exposure policy; epidemiology; public health policy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dürrenberger, G.; Fröhlich, J.; Röösli, M.; Mattsson, M.-O. EMF Monitoring—Concepts, Activities, Gaps and Options. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 9460-9479.

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