Special Issue "Molecular Conductors"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Reizo Kato (Website)

Chief Scientist, Director of Condensed Molecular Materials Laboratory, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan
Fax: 81 48 467 9408
Interests: molecular conductors; tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives; metal dithiolene complexes; N,N'-dicyanobenzoquinonediimines (DCNQI); π-d systems; crystal and electronic structures; transport and magnetic properties

Keywords

  • synthesis and crystal growth of new molecular conductors
  • molecular superconductors
  • single component molecular metals
  • magnetic molecular conductors
  • zero-gap molecular conductors
  • fullerene-based molecular conductors
  • organic FET and other molecular devices
  • strongly correlated electron systems
  • metal-insulator transition
  • Mott transition
  • charge order
  • geometrical frustration
  • photo-induced phenomena
  • pressure effects
  • non-linear phenomena
  • X-ray diffraction
  • transport and magnetic properties
  • dielectric properties
  • thermodynamic properties
  • NMR and ESR
  • vibrational spectroscopy
  • electronic state calculations
  • theoretical models

Published Papers (45 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-45
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessCommunication Solvent-Included Ternary Charge-Transfer Salt (BEDT-TTF)2GaCl4(C6H5Cl)0.5, (BEDT-TTF = Bis(ethyelenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene)
Crystals 2013, 3(1), 112-119; doi:10.3390/cryst3010112
Received: 27 November 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 25 January 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The synthesis, crystal structure, and conductivity of a solvent-included ternary charge-transfer salt (BEDT-TTF)2GaCl4(C6H5Cl)0.5 (1) is described and interpreted. Electrochemical oxidation of neutral bis(ethyelenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF) in the presence of (Me4N)Ga(C [...] Read more.
The synthesis, crystal structure, and conductivity of a solvent-included ternary charge-transfer salt (BEDT-TTF)2GaCl4(C6H5Cl)0.5 (1) is described and interpreted. Electrochemical oxidation of neutral bis(ethyelenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF) in the presence of (Me4N)Ga(C2O4)Cl2 in a mixture of C6H5Cl and C2H5OH yields crystals of 1. Compound 1 crystallized as a monoclinic C 2/c space group with cell parameters: a = 47.0615(4) Å, b = 6.7895(1) Å, c = 31.6297(4) Å, β = 132.064(1)°, V = 7503.0(2) Å3, Z = 8 at 293 K and a = 46.4767(5) Å, b = 6.7398(1) Å, c = 31.0778(4) Å, β = 131.630(1)°, V = 7267.4(2) Å3, Z = 8 at 120 K. The formal charge of the donor molecule was assigned as +0.5 from bond lengths in the TTF core. The donor molecules stack with C―···S contacts along the c direction and side-to-side SS contacts along the b direction to form a two-dimensional donor layer on the bc plane. In the anion sheet, C6H5Cl chain is sandwiched by two GaCl4 chains with ClCl contacts. Compound 1 shows semiconductive behavior with Ea = 124 meV between room-temperature and 150 K and σ300K = 1 S·cm−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Magnetism and Pressure-Induced Superconductivity of Checkerboard-Type Charge-Ordered Molecular Conductor β-(meso-DMBEDT-TTF)2X (X = PF6 and AsF6)
Crystals 2012, 2(4), 1502-1513; doi:10.3390/cryst2041502
Received: 12 September 2012 / Revised: 5 November 2012 / Accepted: 14 November 2012 / Published: 29 November 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The metallic state of the molecular conductor β-(meso-DMBEDT-TTF)2X (DMBEDT-TTF = 2-(5,6-dihydro-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dithiin-2-ylidene)-5,6-dihydro-5,6-dimethyl-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dithiin, X = PF6, AsF6) is transformed into the checkerboard-type charge-ordered state at around 75–80 K with accompanying metal-insulator (MI) transition [...] Read more.
The metallic state of the molecular conductor β-(meso-DMBEDT-TTF)2X (DMBEDT-TTF = 2-(5,6-dihydro-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dithiin-2-ylidene)-5,6-dihydro-5,6-dimethyl-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dithiin, X = PF6, AsF6) is transformed into the checkerboard-type charge-ordered state at around 75–80 K with accompanying metal-insulator (MI) transition on the anisotropic triangular lattice. With lowering temperatures, the magnetic susceptibility decreases gradually and reveals a sudden drop at the MI transition. By applying pressure, the charge-ordered state is suppressed and superconductivity appears in β-(meso-DMBEDT-TTF)2AsF6 as well as in the reported β-(meso-DMBEDT-TTF)2PF6. The charge-ordered spin-gapped state and the pressure-induced superconducting state are discussed through the paired-electron crystal (PEC) model, where the spin-bonded electron pairs stay and become mobile in the crystal, namely the valence-bond solid (VBS) and the resonant valence bonded (RVB) state in the quarter-filled band structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Structural and Electrical Properties of the τ-(P-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2 (AuCl2) (AuCl2)y Compound with (y ≈ 0.9)
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 1283-1290; doi:10.3390/cryst2031283
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 3 September 2012
PDF Full-text (622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The compound τ-(P-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuCl2) (AuCl2)y (where P-S,S-DMEDT-TTF is the compound pyrazino-(S,S)-dimethyl-ethylenedithio-tetrathiofulvale) crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric space group I-42d, with a = 7.3260(1) Å [...] Read more.
The compound τ-(P-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuCl2) (AuCl2)y (where P-S,S-DMEDT-TTF is the compound pyrazino-(S,S)-dimethyl-ethylenedithio-tetrathiofulvale) crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric space group I-42d, with a = 7.3260(1) Å and c = 67.5487(12) Å (RT data) and remains tetragonal in the temperature range from RT to 100 K. This compound is a quasi-two-dimensional material and the relation of the lattice of the order part of the structure created by the donor molecules with that of the disordered anion lattice revealed by intense diffusion streaks give a value of y ≈ 0.9. In contrast to the Br and I analogs or the related compounds which contain the compound ethylenedioxy-S,S-dimethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (abbreviated as EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF) as donor and which exhibit anisotropic metallic behavior down to low temperature, this compound is anisotropic semiconductor in the same temperature range. The appearance of satellites on the diffraction images recorded below 110 K indicates a structural change. Resistivity measurements show that this material is a semiconductor with anisotropy σac of ca. 400–1400 at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Organic Semiconductors and Conductors with tert-Butyl Substituents
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 1222-1238; doi:10.3390/cryst2031222
Received: 12 May 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), pentacene, and quarterthiophene with tert-butyl substituents are synthesized, and the crystal structures and the transistor properties are investigated. The tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) complex of tert-butyl TTF constructs highly one-dimensional segregated columns with tetragonal crystal symmetry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Electronic Structure of Cu(tmdt)2 Studied with First-Principles Calculations
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 1210-1221; doi:10.3390/cryst2031210
Received: 13 April 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have studied the electronic structure of Cu(tmdt)2, a material related to single-component molecular conductors, by first-principles calculations. The total energy calculations for several different magnetic configurations show that there is strong antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange coupling along the crystal a-axis. [...] Read more.
We have studied the electronic structure of Cu(tmdt)2, a material related to single-component molecular conductors, by first-principles calculations. The total energy calculations for several different magnetic configurations show that there is strong antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange coupling along the crystal a-axis. The electronic structures are analyzed in terms of the molecular orbitals near the Fermi level of isolated Cu(tmdt)2 molecule. This analysis reveals that the system is characterized by the half-filled pdσ(−) band whose intermolecular hopping integrals have strong one-dimensionality along the crystal a-axis. As the exchange splitting of the band is larger than the band width, the basic mechanism of the AFM exchange coupling is the superexchange. It will also be shown that two more ligand orbitals which are fairly insensitive to magnetism are located near the Fermi level. Because of the presence of these orbitals, the present calculation predicts that Cu(tmdt)2 is metallic even in its AFM state, being inconsistent with the available experiment. Some comments will be made on the difference between Cu(tmdt)2 and Cu(dmdt)2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Structures and Properties of Molecular Conductors Based on Bis-Fused Donors Composed of (Thio)Pyran-4-ylidene-1,3-dithiole and Tetraselenafulvalene
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 1092-1107; doi:10.3390/cryst2031092
Received: 27 April 2012 / Revised: 10 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bis-fused donors composed of (thio)pyran-4-ylidene-1,3-dithiole and tetraselenafulvalene (1a, 2a) and their bis(methylthio) derivatives (1b, 2b) were synthesized. Cyclic voltamograms of all the donors consisted of four pairs of one-electron redox waves, and it was suggested that [...] Read more.
Bis-fused donors composed of (thio)pyran-4-ylidene-1,3-dithiole and tetraselenafulvalene (1a, 2a) and their bis(methylthio) derivatives (1b, 2b) were synthesized. Cyclic voltamograms of all the donors consisted of four pairs of one-electron redox waves, and it was suggested that a positive charge of 1+• and 2+• distributed mainly on the (thio)pyran-4-ylidene-1,3-dithiole moiety. X-ray structure analysis revealed that (1b)PF6(C6H5Cl)0.5 and (2b)PF6(C6H5Cl) formed one-dimensional conducting stacks in which the donors were dimerized or tetramerized. In those salts, intramolecular charge disproportionation of the donors was suggested by X-ray structure analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculation with UB3LYP/6-31G(d) basis function. A tight-binding band calculation suggested that these materials were band insulators. All the donors gave highly conducting TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) complexes and I3 salts (σrt = 0.3–19 S cm−1 on a compressed pellet) with very low activation energies of 0.017–0.040 eV, while single crystals of (1b)PF6(C6H5Cl)0.5 and (2b)PF6(C6H5Cl) exhibited semiconductive behavior with large activation energies (Ea = 0.16–0.22 eV). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle One-Pot Synthesis of Cu(II) Complex with Partially Oxidized TTF Moieties
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 935-945; doi:10.3390/cryst2030935
Received: 20 April 2012 / Revised: 14 June 2012 / Accepted: 26 June 2012 / Published: 10 July 2012
PDF Full-text (615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The one-pot synthesis of a Cu(II) complex with partially oxidized tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) moieties in its capping MT-Hsae-TTF ligands, [CuII(MT-sae-TTF)2] [CuICl2] was realized by the simultaneous occurrence of Cu(II) complexation and CuIICl2 [...] Read more.
The one-pot synthesis of a Cu(II) complex with partially oxidized tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) moieties in its capping MT-Hsae-TTF ligands, [CuII(MT-sae-TTF)2] [CuICl2] was realized by the simultaneous occurrence of Cu(II) complexation and CuIICl2 mediated oxidation of TTF moieties. The crystal structure was composed of one-dimensional columns formed by partially oxidized TTF moieties and thus the cation radical salt showed relatively high electrical conductivity. Tight binding band structure calculations indicated the existence of a Peierls gap due to the tetramerization of the TTF moieties in the one-dimensional stacking column at room temperature, which is consistent with the semiconducting behavior of this salt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Metallic One-Dimensional Conductors Composed of Axially Ligated (Phthalocyanato)CoIII with Supramolecular Cations of A(EtOH)4 (A = Na and K)
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 946-957; doi:10.3390/cryst2030946
Received: 21 February 2012 / Revised: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 3 July 2012 / Published: 10 July 2012
PDF Full-text (636 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Electrolysis of Na and K salts of the anion dicyano(phthalocyaninato)cobalt(III) (Co(Pc)(CN)2) in ethanol yields one-dimensional partially oxidized salts of A[Co(Pc)(CN)2]2.4(EtOH) (A = Na and K). The cationic component is the supramolecular cation [A(EtOH)4]+ [...] Read more.
Electrolysis of Na and K salts of the anion dicyano(phthalocyaninato)cobalt(III) (Co(Pc)(CN)2) in ethanol yields one-dimensional partially oxidized salts of A[Co(Pc)(CN)2]2.4(EtOH) (A = Na and K). The cationic component is the supramolecular cation [A(EtOH)4]+, which forms hydrogen bonds with the CN ligands of the Co(Pc)(CN)2 units. The crystal shows metallic conductivity, in contrast to the thermally activated conductivity observed in the isomorphous tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP) salt of TPP[Co(Pc)(CN)2]2. Since the π-π interactions in these isomorphous crystals are nearly the same, the distinctive behavior of the Na and K salts may be attributed to the difference in the degree of charge disproportionation in these crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Cation Dependence of Crystal Structure and Band Parameters in a Series of Molecular Conductors, β'-(Cation)[Pd(dmit)2]2 (dmit = 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate)
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 861-874; doi:10.3390/cryst2030861
Received: 27 March 2012 / Revised: 25 June 2012 / Accepted: 27 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (4468 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An isostructural series of anion radical salts, β'-(EtxMe4−xZ)[Pd(dmit)2]2 (x = 0–2, Z = P, As, Sb), with a quasi-triangular lattice comprising the dimer unit [Pd(dmit)2]2 belong to a [...] Read more.
An isostructural series of anion radical salts, β'-(EtxMe4−xZ)[Pd(dmit)2]2 (x = 0–2, Z = P, As, Sb), with a quasi-triangular lattice comprising the dimer unit [Pd(dmit)2]2 belong to a strongly correlated electron system with geometrical frustration. Intra and interdimer transfer integrals between the frontier molecular orbitals, which characterize the strength of electron correlation and degree of frustration, can be tuned by selection of the counter cation. We have systematically analyzed the crystal structure with X-ray diffraction method and intermolecular transfer integrals using extended Hückel molecular orbital calculations based on structural data. The variation in the cation affects the unit cell in a manner equivalent to an anisotropic pressure. Increasing the covalent radius of the central atom Z and the number of ethyl groups (x) in the cation leads to slight arching of the Pd(dmit)2 molecule. This arch-shaped distortion of the Pd(dmit)2 molecule modifies the interdimer transfer integrals in formation of the regular triangular dimer lattice. On the other hand, the intradimer transfer integral, which is correlated with the effective on-site Coulomb interaction of the dimer, is weakly dependent on the type of cation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Gate-Induced Thermally Stimulated Current on the Ferroelectric-like Dielectric Properties of (BEDT-TTF)(TCNQ) Crystalline Field Effect Transistor
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 730-740; doi:10.3390/cryst2030730
Received: 20 March 2012 / Revised: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 29 June 2012
PDF Full-text (332 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A gate-induced thermally stimulated current (TSC) on β′-(BEDT-TTF)(TCNQ) crystalline FET were conducted to elucidate the previously observed ferroelectric-like behaviors. TSC which is symmetric for the polarization of an applied VPG and has a peak at around 285 K was [...] Read more.
A gate-induced thermally stimulated current (TSC) on β′-(BEDT-TTF)(TCNQ) crystalline FET were conducted to elucidate the previously observed ferroelectric-like behaviors. TSC which is symmetric for the polarization of an applied VPG and has a peak at around 285 K was assigned as a pyroelectric current. By integrating the pyroelectric current, temperature dependence of the remnant polarization charge was obtained and the existence of the ferroelectric phase transition at 285 K was clearly demonstrated. We have tentatively concluded that the phase transition between dimer Mott insulator and charge ordered phase occurred at around the interface of organic crystal and substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Single-Component Charge-Transfer Crystals Based on Spin-Carrying TCNQ (7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane) Derivatives
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 662-668; doi:10.3390/cryst2020662
Received: 16 March 2012 / Revised: 1 June 2012 / Accepted: 5 June 2012 / Published: 12 June 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three TCNQ derivatives carrying nitroxide radicals (3a3c) were prepared and were found to form single-component charge-transfer (CT) complexes by self-assembly, in which outer nitroxide groups of a couple of different molecules work as donors and the inner TCNQ [...] Read more.
Three TCNQ derivatives carrying nitroxide radicals (3a3c) were prepared and were found to form single-component charge-transfer (CT) complexes by self-assembly, in which outer nitroxide groups of a couple of different molecules work as donors and the inner TCNQ unit of another molecule as an acceptor. While the CT interactions found for the TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxy) derivative 3a and the PROXYL (2,2,5,5-tetramethylpirrolidin-1-oxy) derivative 3b are point-to-face fashion between the oxygen atom of each nitroxide group and the six-membered ring of inner TCNQ unit, the CT interactions found for the PO (2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrrolin-1-oxy) derivative 3c are point-to-point contacts between the oxygen atoms of outer nitroxide groups and the carbon atoms of a couple of cyano groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformation from δ-(BEDT-TTF)4[OsNOCl5]1.33(C6H5NO2)0.67 to β"-(BEDT-TTF)3[OsNOCl5]
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 627-642; doi:10.3390/cryst2020627
Received: 16 March 2012 / Revised: 15 May 2012 / Accepted: 15 May 2012 / Published: 7 June 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We report on the single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation occurring over time in a layered organic molecular conductor based on BEDT-TTF. The process is connected with removal of solvent molecules from the complex anion layer resulting in concomitant partial irreversible conversion of the δ-(BEDT-TTF)4 [...] Read more.
We report on the single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation occurring over time in a layered organic molecular conductor based on BEDT-TTF. The process is connected with removal of solvent molecules from the complex anion layer resulting in concomitant partial irreversible conversion of the δ-(BEDT-TTF)4[OsNOCl5]1.33(C6H5NO2)0.67 structure to the β"-(BEDT-TTF)3[OsNOCl5] structure. Along with symmetry lowering from I2/a to Р, huge, drastic changes in the conducting BEDT-TTF layer as well as in the anion arrangement are observed, meanwhile crystallinity of the sample is retained. Coexistence of two phases, parent δ and daughter β" in the same crystal helps in the study of their mutual orientation as well as to formulate a mechanism for the structural transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Spin and Charge Transport in the X-ray Irradiated Quasi-2D Layered Compound: κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 579-589; doi:10.3390/cryst2020579
Received: 23 March 2012 / Revised: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 11 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interplane spin cross relaxation time Tx measured by high frequency ESR in X-ray irradiated κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl is compared to the interplane resisitivity ρ⊥and the in-plane resistivity ρII between 50 K and 250 K. The [...] Read more.
The interplane spin cross relaxation time Tx measured by high frequency ESR in X-ray irradiated κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl is compared to the interplane resisitivity ρ⊥and the in-plane resistivity ρII between 50 K and 250 K. The irradiation transforms the semiconductor behavior of the non-irradiated crystal into metallic. Irradiation decreases Tx, ρ⊥ and ρII but the ratio Tx/ρ⊥ and ρ⊥/ρII remain unchanged between 50 and 250 K. Models describing the unusual defect concentration dependence in κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Optical Investigations of Charge Order in Organic Chain Compounds (TMTTF)2X
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 528-578; doi:10.3390/cryst2020528
Received: 2 March 2012 / Revised: 30 April 2012 / Accepted: 1 May 2012 / Published: 23 May 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (11048 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Charge ordering in the (TMTTF)2X salts with centrosymmetric anions (X = PF‾6 , AsF‾6 , SbF‾6 ) leads to a ferroelectric state around 100 K. For the first time and in great completeness, the intra- and intermolecular [...] Read more.
Charge ordering in the (TMTTF)2X salts with centrosymmetric anions (X = PF‾6 , AsF‾6 , SbF‾6 ) leads to a ferroelectric state around 100 K. For the first time and in great completeness, the intra- and intermolecular vibrational modes of (TMTTF)2X have been investigated by infrared and Raman spectroscopy as a function of temperature and pressure for different polarizations. In this original paper, we explore the development and amount of charge disproportionation and the coupling of the electronic degrees of freedom to the counterions and the underlying lattice. The methyl groups undergo changes with temperature that are crucial for the anion cage formed by them. We find that the coupling of the TMTTF molecules to the hexafluorine anions changes upon cooling and especially at the charge-order transition, indicating a distortion of the anion. Additional features are identified that are caused by the anharmonic potential. The spin-Peierls transition entails additional modifications in the charge distribution. To complete the discussion, we also add the vibrational frequencies and eigenvectors based on ab-initio quantum-chemical calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Structure and Solid State Properties of Cyclohexanemethylamine Substituted Phenalenyl Based Molecular Conductor
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 446-465; doi:10.3390/cryst2020446
Received: 30 March 2012 / Revised: 20 April 2012 / Accepted: 2 May 2012 / Published: 14 May 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1001 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We report the preparation, crystallization and solid state characterization of a cyclohexanemethylamine substituted spirobiphenalenyl radical; in the solid state the compound is iso-structural with its dehydro-analog (benzylamine-substitued compound), and the molecules packed in a one-dimensional fashion that we refer to as a [...] Read more.
We report the preparation, crystallization and solid state characterization of a cyclohexanemethylamine substituted spirobiphenalenyl radical; in the solid state the compound is iso-structural with its dehydro-analog (benzylamine-substitued compound), and the molecules packed in a one-dimensional fashion that we refer to as a π-step stack. Neighboring molecules in the stack interact via the overlap of one pair of active (spin bearing) carbon atoms per phenalenyl unit. The magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates that in the solid state the radical remains paramagnetic and the fraction of Curie spins is 0.75 per molecule. We use the analytical form of the Bonner-Fisher model for the S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain of isotropically interacting spins with intrachain spin coupling constant J = 6.3 cm−1, to fit the experimentally observed paramagnetism [χp (T)] in the temperature range 4–330 K. The measured room temperature conductivity (σRT = 2.4 × 10–3 S/cm) is comparable with that of the iso-structural benzyl radical, even though the calculated band dispersions are smaller than that of the unsaturated analog. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Properties of 2-Alkylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d]-4,5-ethylenediselenotetrathiafulvalene Derivatives and Crystal Structures of Their Cation Radical Salts
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 393-412; doi:10.3390/cryst2020393
Received: 23 March 2012 / Revised: 24 April 2012 / Accepted: 24 April 2012 / Published: 9 May 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2775 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Tetrathiafulvalene derivatives condensed with 2-alkylidene-1,3-dithiole moiety, MeDTES (2-isopropylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d]-4,5-ethylenediselenotetrathiafulvalene), EtDTES (2-(pentan-3-ylidene)-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d]-4,5-ethylenediselenotetrathiafulvalene), and CPDTES (2-cyclopentanylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d]-4,5-ethylenediselenotetrathiafulvalene) have been synthesized. Crystal structure analysis of MeDTES salts with Au(CN)4, ReO4, and I3 and [...] Read more.
Tetrathiafulvalene derivatives condensed with 2-alkylidene-1,3-dithiole moiety, MeDTES (2-isopropylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d]-4,5-ethylenediselenotetrathiafulvalene), EtDTES (2-(pentan-3-ylidene)-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d]-4,5-ethylenediselenotetrathiafulvalene), and CPDTES (2-cyclopentanylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d]-4,5-ethylenediselenotetrathiafulvalene) have been synthesized. Crystal structure analysis of MeDTES salts with Au(CN)4, ReO4, and I3 and a CPDTES salt with I3 reveals that the donor−anion ratios of all salts are 1:1. Band calculation of (MeDTES)[Au(CN)4] suggests a quasi-one-dimensional Fermi surface that could be the result of the uniform stack of donor molecules. In spite of this stacking, the salt is a Mott insulator because of a large on-site Coulomb interaction U. (MeDTES)(ReO4)(H2O)0.5 possesses Fermi points and exhibits semiconducting behavior with small activation energy (Ea = 0.058 eV). I3 ions form disordered infinite chain in (MeDTES)(I3)(DCE)0.25, but those in (CPDTES)(I3) exist as discrete ions. They show low conductivity (10−4−10−2 S cm−1) at room temperature and the band calculation suggests that they are band insulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Polyoxotungstate-Surfactant Layered Crystal toward Conductive Inorganic-Organic Hybrid
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 362-373; doi:10.3390/cryst2020362
Received: 12 February 2012 / Revised: 17 April 2012 / Accepted: 27 April 2012 / Published: 3 May 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A polyoxotungstate-surfactant hybrid layered compound was synthesized as a single phase by using decatungstate ([W10O32]4−, W10) and hexadecylpyridinium (C16py). The X-ray structure analysis combined with infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis revealed the [...] Read more.
A polyoxotungstate-surfactant hybrid layered compound was synthesized as a single phase by using decatungstate ([W10O32]4−, W10) and hexadecylpyridinium (C16py). The X-ray structure analysis combined with infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis revealed the formula to be (C16py)4[W10O32] (C16py-W10). The layered structure consisted of alternative stacking of W10 inorganic monolayers and interdigitated C16py bilayers with layered periodicity of 23.3 Å. Each W10 anion in the W10 inorganic monolayers was isolated by the hydrophilic heads of C16py. The hybrid crystals of C16py-W10 decomposed at around 500 K. The conductivity of the hybrid layered crystal was estimated to be 4.8 × 10−6 S cm−1 at 423 K by alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Halogen Bonding Interactions in DDQ Charge Transfer Salts with Iodinated TTFs
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 327-337; doi:10.3390/cryst2020327
Received: 22 March 2012 / Revised: 11 April 2012 / Accepted: 11 April 2012 / Published: 24 April 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Oxidation of 3,4-ethylenedithio-3'-iodo-tetrathiafulvalene (EDT-TTF-I) and 3,4-ethylenedithio-3',4'-diiodo-tetrathiafulvalene (EDT-TTF-I2) with DDQ afforded two different salts formulated as (EDT-TTF-I)(DDQ) and (EDT-TTF-I2)2(DDQ)·(CH3CN), both characterized with a full charge transfer to the DDQ acceptor moiety and by short and [...] Read more.
Oxidation of 3,4-ethylenedithio-3'-iodo-tetrathiafulvalene (EDT-TTF-I) and 3,4-ethylenedithio-3',4'-diiodo-tetrathiafulvalene (EDT-TTF-I2) with DDQ afforded two different salts formulated as (EDT-TTF-I)(DDQ) and (EDT-TTF-I2)2(DDQ)·(CH3CN), both characterized with a full charge transfer to the DDQ acceptor moiety and by short and linear halogen bonding interactions between the iodine atom as halogen bond donor, and the carbonyl oxygen or the nitrile nitrogen atoms of reduced DDQ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Electroactive Bisiminopyridine Ligands: Synthesis and Complexation Studies
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 338-348; doi:10.3390/cryst2020338
Received: 22 March 2012 / Revised: 6 April 2012 / Accepted: 9 April 2012 / Published: 24 April 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The condensation reaction of (4-(6,7-dimethyldithio-tetrathiafulvalene)-aniline) with 2,6-diformylpyridine afforded an electroactive Schiff base (N,N,N) pincer (3). This pincer was reacted with Zn(II) cation to yield the corresponding Zinc chloride complex (4). The crystal structure of the newly prepared electroactive [...] Read more.
The condensation reaction of (4-(6,7-dimethyldithio-tetrathiafulvalene)-aniline) with 2,6-diformylpyridine afforded an electroactive Schiff base (N,N,N) pincer (3). This pincer was reacted with Zn(II) cation to yield the corresponding Zinc chloride complex (4). The crystal structure of the newly prepared electroactive zinc complex reveals that the tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) is neutral and the zinc cation is pentacoordinated. The two chlorines are involved in a set of hydrogen bonds giving rise to a 2D supramolecular grid arrangement. The electronic absorption properties and the electrochemical behavior have been elucidated. These two compounds are promising for the construction of crystalline radical cation salts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle New BEDT-TTF Radical Cation Salt with Mixed Anions: α'-[BEDT-TTF]2[CuBr2]0.4[CuCl2]0.6
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 284-293; doi:10.3390/cryst2020284
Received: 8 March 2012 / Revised: 13 April 2012 / Accepted: 13 April 2012 / Published: 23 April 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1098 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new mixed-anion crystal composed of BEDT-TTF radical cation salt [BEDT-TTF]2(CuBr2)0.4(CuCl2)0.6 with an α'-type donor arrangement with a formal charge of +0.5 per BEDT-TTF was prepared by using a chemical oxidation method [...] Read more.
A new mixed-anion crystal composed of BEDT-TTF radical cation salt [BEDT-TTF]2(CuBr2)0.4(CuCl2)0.6 with an α'-type donor arrangement with a formal charge of +0.5 per BEDT-TTF was prepared by using a chemical oxidation method and characterized by using X-ray diffraction, four-probe electrical resistivity measurements (semiconductor: ρrt = 2 × 102 Ω cm, Ea = 0.2 eV), and energy band calculations. The results showed that this system had a quasi-one dimensional Fermi surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Polymorphism and Metallic Behavior in BEDT-TTF Radical Salts with Polycyano Anions
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 306-326; doi:10.3390/cryst2020306
Received: 27 March 2012 / Revised: 12 April 2012 / Accepted: 13 April 2012 / Published: 23 April 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1788 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Up to five different crystalline radical salts have been prepared with the organic donor BEDT-TTF and three different polynitrile anions. With the polynitrile dianion tcpd2− (=C[C(CN)2]32−), two closely related radical salts: α'-(ET)4tcpd·THF (1 [...] Read more.
Up to five different crystalline radical salts have been prepared with the organic donor BEDT-TTF and three different polynitrile anions. With the polynitrile dianion tcpd2− (=C[C(CN)2]32−), two closely related radical salts: α'-(ET)4tcpd·THF (1) (THF = tetrahydrofurane) and α'-(ET)4tcpd·H2O (2) have been prepared, depending on the solvent used in the synthesis. With the mono-anion tcnoetOH (=[(NC)2CC(OCH2CH2OH)C(CN)2]) two polymorphs with similar physical properties but different crystal packings have been synthesized: θ-(ET)2(tcnoetOH) (3) and β''-(ET)2(tcnoetOH) (4). Finally, with the mono-anion tcnoprOH (=[(NC)2CC(OCH2CH2CH2OH)C(CN)2]) we have prepared a metallic radical salt: β''-(ET)2(tcnoprOH)(CH2Cl2CH3Cl)0.5 (5). Salts 14 are semiconductors with high room temperature conductivities and activation energies in the range 0.1–0.5 eV, whereas salt 5 is metallic down to 0.4 K although it does not show any superconducting transition above this temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Equivalence of Electron-Vibration Interaction and Charge-Induced Force Variations: A New O(1) Approach to an Old Problem
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 236-247; doi:10.3390/cryst2020236
Received: 8 March 2012 / Revised: 2 April 2012 / Accepted: 9 April 2012 / Published: 18 April 2012
PDF Full-text (111 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Calculating electron-vibration (vibronic) interaction constants is computationally expensive. For molecules containing N nuclei it involves solving the Schrödinger equation for Ο(3N) nuclear configurations in addition to the cost of determining the vibrational modes. We show that quantum vibronic interactions are proportional [...] Read more.
Calculating electron-vibration (vibronic) interaction constants is computationally expensive. For molecules containing N nuclei it involves solving the Schrödinger equation for Ο(3N) nuclear configurations in addition to the cost of determining the vibrational modes. We show that quantum vibronic interactions are proportional to the classical atomic forces induced when the total charge of the system is varied. This enables the calculation of vibronic interaction constants from O(1) solutions of the Schrödinger equation. We demonstrate that the O(1) approach produces numerically accurate results by calculating the vibronic interaction constants for several molecules. We investigate the role of molecular vibrations in the Mott transition in κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle Properties of Mn2+ and Π-Electron Spin Systems Probed by 1H and 13C NMR in the Organic Conductor κ-(BETS)2Mn[N(CN)2]3
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 224-235; doi:10.3390/cryst2020224
Received: 7 March 2012 / Revised: 30 March 2012 / Accepted: 31 March 2012 / Published: 12 April 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Properties of the spin systems of the localized 3d Mn2+ ions and the conduction π electrons in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor κ-(BETS)2Mn[N(CN)2]3 were accessed using 1H and 13C NMR in order to find [...] Read more.
Properties of the spin systems of the localized 3d Mn2+ ions and the conduction π electrons in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor κ-(BETS)2Mn[N(CN)2]3 were accessed using 1H and 13C NMR in order to find their relation to the metal-insulator transition which occurs at ∼23 K. The transition of the system into the insulating state is shown to be followed by localization of the π spins into a long-range ordered staggered structure of AF type. In contrast, the 3d Mn2+ electron spin moments form a disordered tilted structure, which may signify their trend to AF order, frustrated geometrically by the triangular arrangement of Mn in the anion layer. This result suggests that the MI transition in κ-(BETS)2Mn[N(CN)2]3 is not the consequence of the interactions within the Mn2+ spins but due to the interactions within the π-electron system itself. Vice versa, it is more likelythat the disordered tilted structure of the Mn2+ spins is induced by the ordered π-spins via the π-d interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessCommunication A New BEDT-TTF-Based Organic Charge Transfer Salt with a New Anionic Strong Acceptor, N,N'-Disulfo-1,4-benzoquinonediimine
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 182-192; doi:10.3390/cryst2020182
Received: 21 February 2012 / Revised: 27 March 2012 / Accepted: 28 March 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A novel organic dianion, N,N'-Disulfo-1,4-benzoquinonediimine (1) has been prepared, which is a strong electron acceptor. The reduction potential of the PPh4 salt indicates that 1 is a stronger acceptor than DDQ (2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone). The dianionic acceptor provided [...] Read more.
A novel organic dianion, N,N'-Disulfo-1,4-benzoquinonediimine (1) has been prepared, which is a strong electron acceptor. The reduction potential of the PPh4 salt indicates that 1 is a stronger acceptor than DDQ (2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone). The dianionic acceptor provided a BEDT-TTF salt, (BEDT-TTF)41·3H2O, the structures and physical properties of which are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessArticle New Fulvalenium Salts of Cobalt Bis(dicarbollide): Crystal Structures and Electrical Conductivities
Crystals 2012, 2(1), 43-55; doi:10.3390/cryst2010043
Received: 6 December 2011 / Revised: 21 December 2011 / Accepted: 22 December 2011 / Published: 6 January 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
New radical cation salts (BEDT-TTF)[8,8',(7)-Cl2(Cl0.09)-3,3'-Co(1,2-C2B9H9.91)(1',2'-C2B9H10)] (1), (BEDT-TTF)[8,8'-Br0.75Cl1.25-3,3'-Co(1,2-C2B9H10)2] (2), and (BMDT-TTF) [...] Read more.
New radical cation salts (BEDT-TTF)[8,8',(7)-Cl2(Cl0.09)-3,3'-Co(1,2-C2B9H9.91)(1',2'-C2B9H10)] (1), (BEDT-TTF)[8,8'-Br0.75Cl1.25-3,3'-Co(1,2-C2B9H10)2] (2), and (BMDT-TTF)4[8,8'-Br1.16(OH)0.72-3,3'-Co(1,2-C2B9H10.06)2] (3) were synthesized, and their crystal structures and electrical conductivities were determined. All the radical cation salts are semiconductors. Compounds 1 and 2 were found to be isostructural, however their electrical conductivities strongly differ (s293 = 2 Ω1cm−1 and 10−5 Ω−1cm−1, respectively). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Pressure Effect on Organic Conductors
Crystals 2012, 2(4), 1460-1482; doi:10.3390/cryst2041460
Received: 25 August 2012 / Revised: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 21 September 2012 / Published: 23 October 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract Pressure is a powerful tool to unveil the profound nature of electronic properties in a variety of organic conductors. Starting from technology of high pressure, we plan to review what kind of physics or phenomena have previously been discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Infrared and Raman Studies of Charge Ordering in Organic Conductors, BEDT-TTF Salts with Quarter-Filled Bands
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 1291-1346; doi:10.3390/cryst2031291
Received: 22 May 2012 / Revised: 4 July 2012 / Accepted: 20 July 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (3681 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews charge ordering in the organic conductors, β″-(BEDT-TTF) (TCNQ), θ-(BEDT-TTF)2X, and α-(BEDT-TTF)2X. Here, BEDT-TTF and TCNQ represent bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, respectively. These compounds, all of which have a quarter-filled band, were evaluated using infrared and Raman spectroscopy in addition to optical conductivity measurements. It was found that β″-(BEDT-TTF)(TCNQ) changes continuously from a uniform metal to a charge-ordered metal with increasing temperature. Although charge disproportionation was clearly observed, long-range charge order is not realized. Among six θ-type salts, four compounds with a narrow band show the metal-insulator transition. However, they maintain a large amplitude of charge order (Δρ~0.6) in both metallic and insulating phases. In the X = CsZn(SCN)4 salt with intermediate bandwidth, the amplitude of charge order is very small (Δρ < 0.07) over the whole temperature range. However, fluctuation of charge order is indicated in the Raman spectrum and optical conductivity. No indication of the fluctuation of charge order is found in the wide band X = I3 salt. In α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 the amplitude of charge order changes discontinuously from small amplitude at high temperature to large amplitude (Δρmax~0.6) at low temperature. The long-range charge-ordered state shows ferroelectric polarization with fast optical response. The fluctuation of multiple stripes occurs in the high-temperature metallic phase. Among α-(BEDT-TTF)2MHg(SCN)4 (X = NH4, K, Rb, Tl), the fluctuation of charge order is indicated only in the X = NH4 salt. α′-(BEDT-TTF)2IBr2 shows successive phase transitions to the ferroelectric state keeping a large amplitude of charge order (Δρmax~0.8) over the whole temperature range. It was found that the amplitude and fluctuation of charge order in these compounds is enhanced as the kinetic energy (bandwidth) decreases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Theories on Frustrated Electrons in Two-Dimensional Organic Solids
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 1155-1200; doi:10.3390/cryst2031155
Received: 28 April 2012 / Revised: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two-dimensional quarter-filled organic solids are a promising class of materials to realize the strongly correlated insulating states called dimer Mott insulator and charge order. In their conducting layer, the molecules form anisotropic triangular lattices, harboring geometrical frustration effect, which could give rise [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional quarter-filled organic solids are a promising class of materials to realize the strongly correlated insulating states called dimer Mott insulator and charge order. In their conducting layer, the molecules form anisotropic triangular lattices, harboring geometrical frustration effect, which could give rise to many interesting states of matter in the two insulators and in the metals adjacent to them. This review is concerned with the theoretical studies on such issue over the past ten years, and provides the systematic understanding on exotic metals, dielectrics, and spin liquids, which are the consequences of the competing correlation and fluctuation under frustration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessReview 1H and 195Pt NMR Study of the Parallel Two-Chain Compound Per2[Pt(mnt)2]
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 1116-1135; doi:10.3390/cryst2031116
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 23 July 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
1H and 195Pt NMR are used to probe the spin ½ anion chain in the quasi-one-dimensional conductor Per2[Pt(mnt)2], which exhibits nearly simultaneous charge density wave (CDW) and spin-Peierls (SP) transitions at low temperatures (Tc ~ [...] Read more.
1H and 195Pt NMR are used to probe the spin ½ anion chain in the quasi-one-dimensional conductor Per2[Pt(mnt)2], which exhibits nearly simultaneous charge density wave (CDW) and spin-Peierls (SP) transitions at low temperatures (Tc ~ 8 K). Below Tc the [Pt(mnt)2] chain forms a spin-singlet state that is evident in 1H NMR spectra and spin relaxation (1/T1) rates; however minority unpaired Pt spins may remain in the SP ground state. With increasing magnetic field, the SP and CDW order parameters decrease in unison, indicating they are coupled up to a critical field Bc ~ 20 T. Above Bc, the spin singlet evolves into a spin-polarized configuration. The 195Pt NMR signals vanish as either Tc or Bc are approached from within the SP ground state, suggesting the hyperfine field of the Pt nucleus is significantly stronger than at the proton sites. Simulations yield a consistent picture of the angular, temperature, and magnetic field-dependent spectral features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessReview Magnetic and Electric Properties of Organic Conductors Probed by 13C-NMR Using Selective-Site Substituted Molecules
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 1034-1057; doi:10.3390/cryst2031034
Received: 6 April 2012 / Revised: 26 June 2012 / Accepted: 6 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quasi-One and quasi-two dimensional organic conductors consisting of TTF derivatives such as BEDT-TTF (bis-(ethylene-dithio)-tetra-thia-fulvalene) and TMTCF (C = S; TMTTF: tetra-methyl-tetra-thia-fulvalene, C = Se; TMTSF: tetra-methyl-tetra-selena-fulvalene) have been well investigated in condensed matter physics because of interest in the [...] Read more.
Quasi-One and quasi-two dimensional organic conductors consisting of TTF derivatives such as BEDT-TTF (bis-(ethylene-dithio)-tetra-thia-fulvalene) and TMTCF (C = S; TMTTF: tetra-methyl-tetra-thia-fulvalene, C = Se; TMTSF: tetra-methyl-tetra-selena-fulvalene) have been well investigated in condensed matter physics because of interest in the emerging electric and magnetic properties, such as the spin density wave, charge order, superconductivity, anti-ferromagnetism, and so on. To probe the electronic state, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most powerful tools as the microscopic magnetometer. A number of 13C-NMR studies have been performed of the double-site central 13C=13C bond substituted molecules. However, problems with the coupled spin system of 13C=13C complicated the interpretation for observations on NMR. Therefore, single-site 13C-enriched molecules are desired. We summarize the problem of Pake doublet and the preparation of the single-site 13C-susbstituted BEDT-TTF and TMTCF molecules. We also demonstrate the superiority of 13C-NMR of the single-site 13C-susbstituted molecule utilizing the hyperfine coupling tensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Photoinduced Phase Transition in Strongly Electron-Lattice and Electron–Electron Correlated Molecular Crystals
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 1067-1083; doi:10.3390/cryst2031067
Received: 6 May 2012 / Revised: 20 June 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Strongly electron-lattice- and electron-electron-correlated molecular crystals, such as charge transfer (CT) complexes, are often sensitive to external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation, due to the cooperative or competitive correlation of various interactions present in the crystals. These crystals are thus productive targets for studying [...] Read more.
Strongly electron-lattice- and electron-electron-correlated molecular crystals, such as charge transfer (CT) complexes, are often sensitive to external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation, due to the cooperative or competitive correlation of various interactions present in the crystals. These crystals are thus productive targets for studying photoinduced phase transitions (PIPTs). Recent advancements in research on the PIPT of CT complexes, especially Et2Me2Sb[Pd(dmit)2]2 and (EDO-TTF)2PF6, are reviewed in this report. The former exhibits a photoinduced insulator-to-insulator phase transition with clearly assigned spectral change. We demonstrate how to find the dynamics of PIPT using this system. The latter exhibits a photoinduced hidden state as an initial PIPT process. Wide energy ranged time-resolved spectroscopy can probe many kinds of photo-absorption processes, i.e., intra-molecular and inter-molecular electron excitations and intramolecular and electron-molecular vibrations. The photoinduced spectral changes in these photo-absorption processes reveal various aspects of the dynamics of PIPT, including electronic structural changes, lattice structural changes, and molecular deformations. The complexities of the dynamics of the latter system were revealed by our measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessReview Theoretical Studies on Phase Transitions in Quasi-One-Dimensional Molecular Conductors
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 996-1016; doi:10.3390/cryst2030996
Received: 16 April 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 4 July 2012 / Published: 19 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review is given for recent theoretical studies on phase transitions in quasi-one-dimensional molecular conductors with a quarter-filled band. By lowering temperature, charge transfer salts exhibit a variety of transitions accompanying symmetry breaking, such as charge ordering, lattice dimerization, antiferromagnetic transition, spin-Peierls [...] Read more.
A review is given for recent theoretical studies on phase transitions in quasi-one-dimensional molecular conductors with a quarter-filled band. By lowering temperature, charge transfer salts exhibit a variety of transitions accompanying symmetry breaking, such as charge ordering, lattice dimerization, antiferromagnetic transition, spin-Peierls distortion, and so on. Analyses on microscopic quasi-one-dimensional models provide their systematic understandings, by the complementary use of different analytical and numerical techniques; they can reproduce finite-temperature phase transitions, whose results can be directly compared with experiments and give feedbacks to material design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Paramagnetic Metal—Antiferromagnetic Insulator Transition in π-d System λ-BETS2FeCl4, BETS = Bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 984-995; doi:10.3390/cryst2030984
Received: 23 April 2012 / Revised: 1 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 17 July 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor λ-BETS2FeCl4 (BETS = bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene) transforms from a paramagnetic metal (PM) to an antiferromagnetic insulator (AFI) at a transition temperature, TMI, of 8.3 K under zero magnetic field. To understand the mechanism of this PM-AFI [...] Read more.
Quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor λ-BETS2FeCl4 (BETS = bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene) transforms from a paramagnetic metal (PM) to an antiferromagnetic insulator (AFI) at a transition temperature, TMI, of 8.3 K under zero magnetic field. To understand the mechanism of this PM-AFI phase transition, we studied the thermodynamic properties of λ-BETS2FeCl4. We observed, below TMI, a six-level Schottky hump in its specific heat and a broad shoulder in its magnetic susceptibility. Just below the transition temperature TMI, about 80% of 3d spin degree of freedom is sustained. These temperature dependences clarify that π and 3d spins do not cooperatively form the AF order at TMI. In λ-BETS2FexGa1−xCl4 system, the increasing Fe 3d spin density enhances the internal magnetic field caused by π spin antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering, although the 3d spin itself maintains large entropy against the AF ordering. It was confirmed that the Fe 3d spin provided favorable conditions for this mysterious PM-AFI phase transition in the π electron system. We propose that this phase transition originates from the magnetic anisotropy introduced by the π-d interaction, which suppressed the low dimensional fluctuation in the π spin system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Vibrational Spectra of β″-Type BEDT-TTF Salts: Relationship between Conducting Property, Time-Averaged Site Charge and Inter-Molecular Distance
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 893-934; doi:10.3390/cryst2030893
Received: 18 April 2012 / Revised: 20 June 2012 / Accepted: 26 June 2012 / Published: 6 July 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between the conducting behavior and the degree of charge fluctuation in the β″-type BEDT-TTF salts is reviewed from the standpoints of vibrational spectroscopy and crystal structure. A group of β″-type ET salts demonstrates the best model compounds for [...] Read more.
The relationship between the conducting behavior and the degree of charge fluctuation in the β″-type BEDT-TTF salts is reviewed from the standpoints of vibrational spectroscopy and crystal structure. A group of β″-type ET salts demonstrates the best model compounds for achieving the above relationship because the two-dimensional structure is simple and great diversity in conducting behavior is realized under ambient pressure. After describing the requirement for the model compound, the methodology for analyzing the results of the vibrational spectra is presented. Vibrational spectroscopy provides the time-averaged molecular charge, the charge distribution in the two-dimensional layer, and the inter-molecular interactions, etc. The experimental results applied to 2/3-filled and 3/4-filled β″-type ET salts are reported. These experimental results suggest that the conducting property, the difference in the time-averaged molecular charges between the ionic and neutral-like sites, the alternation in the inter-molecular distances and the energy levels in the charge distributions are relevant to one another. The difference in the time-averaged molecular charges, ∆ρ, is a useful criterion for indicating conducting behavior. All superconductors presented in this review are characterized as small but finite ∆ρ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Achievements and Challenges in Molecular Conductors
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 875-892; doi:10.3390/cryst2030875
Received: 1 April 2012 / Revised: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 5 July 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular solids are generally highly insulating. The creation of conducting molecular solids proved to be a major scientific challenge. As in the case of Si technology, the challenge started as impurity doping in band insulators and then developed into highly doped polymers, [...] Read more.
Molecular solids are generally highly insulating. The creation of conducting molecular solids proved to be a major scientific challenge. As in the case of Si technology, the challenge started as impurity doping in band insulators and then developed into highly doped polymers, which are not crystalline. More conducting materials in crystalline forms have been realized in charge transfer (CT) complexes with two different kinds of molecules, where electrons are transferred between them in solids. In such CT complexes, not only conducting, but also even superconducting systems were achieved in 1980 and today more than 100 different superconductors are known. The most remarkable achievement in this direction was the realization of a truly metallic state in molecular solids based on a single kind of molecule. These are called single component molecular metals (SCMM) and consist of a rich variety of electronic properties. In these conducting molecular solids, CT and SCMM, many interesting electronic properties resulting from mutual Coulomb interactions and electron-phonon interactions have been explored so far, and these will be reviewed briefly in this article from a theoretical viewpoint. Challenges to come, based on these achievements, are also discussed at the end of this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Chemical Modifications of BDH-TTP [2,5-Bis(1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene]: Control of Electron Correlation
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 812-844; doi:10.3390/cryst2030812
Received: 20 April 2012 / Revised: 14 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic molecular conductors with a strongly correlated electron system, in which the itinerancy of electrons (or holes) and the electron correlation (U/W, U, the on-site Coulomb repulsion, W, the bandwidth) compete with each other, are promising [...] Read more.
Organic molecular conductors with a strongly correlated electron system, in which the itinerancy of electrons (or holes) and the electron correlation (U/W, U, the on-site Coulomb repulsion, W, the bandwidth) compete with each other, are promising candidates for achieving superconductivity and also for exploring remarkable physical properties induced by external stimuli such as pressure, light, voltage and current. Our synthetic approach to the construction of strongly correlated organic electron systems is based on chemical modifications to the donor molecule BDH-TTP [2,5-bis(1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene] capable of producing metallic CT (charge-transfer) salts stable down to low temperatures (4.2–1.5 K). This aims at enhancing the electron correlation in the itinerant electron system by decreasing the bandwidth. Chemical modifications of BDH-TTP such as ring expansion of two outer dithiolane rings, replacement of one sulfur atom in an outer dithiolane ring with an oxygen atom and introduction of two methyl substituents into an outer ditiolane ring led to BDA-TTP [2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene], DHOT-TTP [2-(1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene)-5-(1,3-oxathiolan-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene] and DMDH-TTP [2-(4,5-dimethyl-1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene)-5-(1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene], respectively. In this review, the physical properties and the crystal and electronic structures of molecular conductors derived from these donor molecules will be described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessReview Thermodynamic Properties of κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X Salts: Electron Correlations and Superconductivity
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 741-761; doi:10.3390/cryst2030741
Received: 11 April 2012 / Revised: 16 June 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 29 June 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (922 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heat capacity measurements of κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X (BEDT-TTF: Bis(ethylendithio) tetrathiafulvalene, X: counteranions) which are classified as two-dimensional (2D) dimer-Mott system are reported. At first, we explain structural and electronic features originated from rigid dimerization in donor arrangement in 2D layers. The [...] Read more.
Heat capacity measurements of κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X (BEDT-TTF: Bis(ethylendithio) tetrathiafulvalene, X: counteranions) which are classified as two-dimensional (2D) dimer-Mott system are reported. At first, we explain structural and electronic features originated from rigid dimerization in donor arrangement in 2D layers. The antiferromagnetic Mott insulating phase located at low-pressure region in the phase diagram shows vanishing γ electronic heat capacity coefficient in the heat capacity, which claims opening of a charge-gap in this insulating state. Then, a systematic change of the γ around the Mott boundary region is reported in relation to the glass freezing of ethylene dynamics. The thermodynamic parameters determined by ∆Cp/γTc of 10 K class superconductors, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2 and κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br demonstrate that a rather large gap with a strong coupling character appears around the Fermi-surface. On the other hand, the low temperature heat capacity clearly shows a picture of nodal-gap structure due to an anisotropic pairing. The comparison with lower Tc compounds in the κ-type structure is also performed so as to discuss overall features of the κ-type superconductors. The heat capacity measurements of hole-doped systems containing mercury in the counteranions show an anomalous enhancement of γ, which is consistent with the T1−1 of NMR experiments etc. The results of heat capacity measurements under high pressures are also reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Neutral Metal 1,2-Dithiolenes: Preparations, Properties and Possible Applications of Unsymmetrical in Comparison to the Symmetrical
Crystals 2012, 2(3), 762-811; doi:10.3390/cryst2030762
Received: 19 March 2012 / Revised: 28 May 2012 / Accepted: 31 May 2012 / Published: 29 June 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is an overview concerning the preparations and properties as well as possible applications of neutral (one component) metal 1,2-dithiolenes (and selenium analogues). The structural, chemical, electrochemical, optical and electrical behavior of these complexes depend strongly on the nature of ligand [...] Read more.
This paper is an overview concerning the preparations and properties as well as possible applications of neutral (one component) metal 1,2-dithiolenes (and selenium analogues). The structural, chemical, electrochemical, optical and electrical behavior of these complexes depend strongly on the nature of ligand and/or the metal. The results of unsymmetrical in comparison to those of symmetrical complexes related to the properties of materials in the solid state are primarily discussed. The optical absorption spectra exhibit strong bands in the near IR spectral region ca. 700 to ca. 1950 nm. X-ray crystal structure solutions show that the complexes usually have square-planar geometry with S–S and/or M–S contacts. Some of them behave as semiconductors or conductors (metals) and are stable in air. The cyclic voltammograms at negative potentials are different from the corresponding potentials of tetrathiafulvalenes (TTFs). As a consequence, the LUMO bands occur at much lower levels than those of TTFs. Consequently, electrical measurements under conditions of field effect transistors exhibit n-type or ambipolar behavior. Illumination of materials with high power lasers exhibits non-linear optical behavior. These properties enable metal 1,2-dithiolene complexes to be classified as promising candidates for optical and electronic applications, (e.g., saturable absorbers, ambipolar inverters). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessReview Transport Phenomena in Multilayered Massless Dirac Fermion System α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 643-661; doi:10.3390/cryst2020643
Received: 14 March 2012 / Revised: 28 May 2012 / Accepted: 29 May 2012 / Published: 11 June 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3580 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A zero-gap state with a Dirac cone type energy dispersion was discovered in an organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 under high hydrostatic pressures. This is the first two-dimensional (2D) zero-gap state discovered in bulk crystals with a layered structure. In contrast [...] Read more.
A zero-gap state with a Dirac cone type energy dispersion was discovered in an organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 under high hydrostatic pressures. This is the first two-dimensional (2D) zero-gap state discovered in bulk crystals with a layered structure. In contrast to the case of graphene, the Dirac cone in this system is highly anisotropic. The present system, therefore, provides a new type of massless Dirac fermion system with anisotropic Fermi velocity. This system exhibits remarkable transport phenomena characteristic to electrons on the Dirac cone type energy structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Photoinduced Phase Transitions in α-, θ-, and κ-type ET Salts: Ultrafast Melting of the Electronic Ordering
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 590-617; doi:10.3390/cryst2020590
Received: 14 March 2012 / Revised: 23 April 2012 / Accepted: 24 April 2012 / Published: 30 May 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photoinduced phase transitions in organic compounds with strong electron correlation ET [bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene)-based salts α-(ET)2I3, θ-(ET)2RbZn(SCN)4, κ-(d-ET)2Cu[N(CN)2Br] were discussed based, on time resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy using ~150 fs [...] Read more.
Photoinduced phase transitions in organic compounds with strong electron correlation ET [bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene)-based salts α-(ET)2I3, θ-(ET)2RbZn(SCN)4, κ-(d-ET)2Cu[N(CN)2Br] were discussed based, on time resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy using ~150 fs mid-infrared pulse, 12 fs near infrared pulse, and sub-picosecond terahertz pulse. (i) In charge-ordered insulators α-(ET)2I3 and θ-(ET)2RbZn(SCN)4, we captured ultrafast snapshots of charge dynamics i.e., immediate (ca. 15 fs) generation of a microscopic metallic state (or equivalently the microscopic melting of the charge order) which is driven by the coherent oscillation (period; 18 fs) of correlated electrons. Subsequently, condensation of the microscopic metallic state to the macroscopic scale occurs in α-(ET)2I3. However, in θ-(ET)2RbZn(SCN)4, such condensation is prevented by the large potential barrier reflecting the structural difference between the insulator and metal; (ii) In a Dimer–Mott insulator κ-(d-ET)2Cu[N(CN)2Br], photogeneration of the metallic state rises during ca. 1 ps that is much slower than the melting of charge order, because the photoinduced insulator to metal transition is driven by the intradimer molecular displacement in the dimer Mott insulator. The ultrafast dynamics of photoinduced insulator–metal transitions depend strongly on the molecular arrangement, reflecting various competing phases in the ET sheets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Structural Aspects of the Bechgaard and Fabre Salts: An Update
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 466-520; doi:10.3390/cryst2020466
Received: 20 March 2012 / Revised: 19 April 2012 / Accepted: 20 April 2012 / Published: 21 May 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (973 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review structural aspects of the Bechgaard and Fabre salts in relationship with their electronic, magnetic and superconducting properties. We emphasize the role of bond and charge modulations of the quarter filled organic stack in the various instabilities and ground states exhibited [...] Read more.
We review structural aspects of the Bechgaard and Fabre salts in relationship with their electronic, magnetic and superconducting properties. We emphasize the role of bond and charge modulations of the quarter filled organic stack in the various instabilities and ground states exhibited by these salts. A special consideration is also devoted to the influence of anions and methyl groups in these processes. In particular we point out the importance of the anions in achieving the inter-stack coupling by either direct or indirect (via the polarization of the methyl group cavities) interactions with the donors. In this framework we discuss the role of anions and methyl group disorders in the inhibition of the divergence of the high temperature bond order wave instability of the Bechgaard salts. We analyze the modulation in the magnetic ground states by considering explicitly the coupling of the magnetization with structural degrees of freedom. We consider the role of the anions and methyl groups in stabilizing the charge ordering pattern in the Fabre salts. We also discuss the spin-Peierls transition of the Fabre salts in relation with the charge ordering transition and the adiabaticity of the phonon field. We review the anion ordering transitions by considering more particularly the influence of the ordering process on the electronic structure and on the ground states which results. In this framework we show that the texture of the anion ordered structure has direct consequences on the superconducting properties of (TMTSF)2ClO4. Finally we conclude on the essential implication of the structural degrees of freedom on the generic phase diagram of the Bechgaard and Fabre salts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Mott-Anderson Transition in Molecular Conductors: Influence of Randomness on Strongly Correlated Electrons in the κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X System
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 374-392; doi:10.3390/cryst2020374
Received: 12 March 2012 / Revised: 18 April 2012 / Accepted: 20 April 2012 / Published: 8 May 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Mott-Anderson transition has been known as a metal-insulator (MI) transition due to both strong electron-electron interaction and randomness of the electrons. For example, the MI transition in doped semiconductors and transition metal oxides has been investigated up to now as a [...] Read more.
The Mott-Anderson transition has been known as a metal-insulator (MI) transition due to both strong electron-electron interaction and randomness of the electrons. For example, the MI transition in doped semiconductors and transition metal oxides has been investigated up to now as a typical example of the Mott-Anderson transition for changing electron correlations by carrier number control in concurrence with inevitable randomness. On the other hand, molecular conductors have been known as typical strongly correlated electron systems with bandwidth controlled Mott transition. In this paper, we demonstrate our recent studies on the randomness effect of the strongly correlated electrons of the BEDT-TTF molecule based organic conductors. X-ray irradiation on the crystals introduces molecular defects in the insulating anion layer, which cause random potential modulation of the correlated electrons in the conductive BEDT-TTF layer. In combination with hydrostatic pressure, we are able to control the parameters for randomness and correlations for electrons approaching the Mott-Anderson transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Theory of Dirac Electrons in Organic Conductors
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 266-283; doi:10.3390/cryst2020266
Received: 26 March 2012 / Revised: 10 April 2012 / Accepted: 10 April 2012 / Published: 20 April 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dynamical property of electrons with the tilted Dirac cone was examined using the tilted Weyl equation. The polarization function exhibits cusps and nonmonotonic structures by varying both the frequency and the momentum. A pair of tilted Dirac cones exhibits a new [...] Read more.
The dynamical property of electrons with the tilted Dirac cone was examined using the tilted Weyl equation. The polarization function exhibits cusps and nonmonotonic structures by varying both the frequency and the momentum. A pair of tilted Dirac cones exhibits a new plasmon for the intermediate magnitude of momentum owing to the combined effects of two tilted cones. Dirac electrons with the zero-gap state (ZGS) in organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 are examined by calculating the Berry curvature, which displays the peak structure for a pair of Dirac particles between the conduction band and the valence band. The ZGS is theoretically predicted for α-(BEDT-TTF)2NH4Hg(SCN)4 under uniaxial pressure. Examining the band structure of the stripe charge ordered state of α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 under pressure, we have found a topological transition from a conventional insulator to a new phase of a pair of Dirac electrons with a finite mass. Further, investigating the zero-energy (N = 0) Landau level under a strong magnetic field, we propose ferromagnetism breaking the SU(2) valley-pseudo-spin symmetry, and the phase fluctuations of the order parameters leading to Kosterlitz-Thouless transition at lower temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Open AccessReview Superconductivity in Layered Organic Metals
Crystals 2012, 2(2), 248-265; doi:10.3390/cryst2020248
Received: 6 March 2012 / Revised: 14 April 2012 / Accepted: 16 April 2012 / Published: 19 April 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this short review, I will give an overview on the current understanding of the superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic metals. Thereby, I will focus on charge-transfer salts based on bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET for short). In these materials, strong electronic correlations are [...] Read more.
In this short review, I will give an overview on the current understanding of the superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic metals. Thereby, I will focus on charge-transfer salts based on bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET for short). In these materials, strong electronic correlations are clearly evident, resulting in unique phase diagrams. The layered crystallographic structure leads to highly anisotropic electronic as well as superconducting properties. The corresponding very high orbital critical field for in-plane magnetic-field alignment allows for the occurrence of the Fulde–Ferrell– Larkin–Ovchinnikov state as evidenced by thermodynamic measurements. The experimental picture on the nature of the superconducting state is still controversial with evidence both for unconventional as well as for BCS-like superconductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Open AccessReview Theory of Photoinduced Phase Transitions in Molecular Conductors: Interplay Between Correlated Electrons, Lattice Phonons and Molecular Vibrations
Crystals 2012, 2(1), 56-77; doi:10.3390/cryst2010056
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 26 December 2011 / Accepted: 31 December 2011 / Published: 6 January 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dynamics of photoinduced phase transitions in molecular conductors are reviewed from the perspective of interplay between correlated electrons and phonons. (1) The charge-transfer complex TTF-CA shows a transition from a neutral paraelectric phase to an ionic ferroelectric phase. Lattice phonons promote this [...] Read more.
Dynamics of photoinduced phase transitions in molecular conductors are reviewed from the perspective of interplay between correlated electrons and phonons. (1) The charge-transfer complex TTF-CA shows a transition from a neutral paraelectric phase to an ionic ferroelectric phase. Lattice phonons promote this photoinduced transition by preparing short-range lattice dimerization as a precursor. Molecular vibrations stabilize the neutral phase so that the ionic phase, when realized, possesses a large ionicity and the Mott character; (2) The organic salts θ-(BEDT-TTF)2RbZn(SCN)4 and α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 show transitions from a charge-ordered insulator to a metal. Lattice phonons make this photoinduced transition hard for the former salt only. Molecular vibrations interfere with intermolecular transfers of correlated electrons at an early stage; (3) The organic salt κ-(d-BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br shows a transition from a Mott insulator to a metal. Lattice phonons modulating intradimer transfer integrals enable photoexcitation-energy-dependent transition pathways through weakening of effective interaction and through introduction of carriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Conductors)
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Crystals Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
crystals@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Crystals
Back to Top