Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 302-327; doi:10.3390/nu5010302
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Calcium Nutrition and Extracellular Calcium Sensing: Relevance for the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis, Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2012; in revised form: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
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Abstract: Through a systematic search in Pubmed for literature, on links between calcium malnutrition and risk of chronic diseases, we found the highest degree of evidence for osteoporosis, colorectal and breast cancer, as well as for hypertension, as the only major cardiovascular risk factor. Low calcium intake apparently has some impact also on cardiovascular events and disease outcome. Calcium malnutrition can causally be related to low activity of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). This member of the family of 7-TM G-protein coupled receptors allows extracellular Ca2+ to function as a “first messenger” for various intracellular signaling cascades. Evidence demonstrates that Ca2+/CaSR signaling in functional linkage with vitamin D receptor (VDR)-activated pathways (i) promotes osteoblast differentiation and formation of mineralized bone; (ii) targets downstream effectors of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathway to inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation of colorectal cancer cells; (iii) evokes Ca2+ influx into breast cancer cells, thereby activating pro-apoptotic intracellular signaling. Furthermore, Ca2+/CaSR signaling opens Ca2+-sensitive K+ conductance channels in vascular endothelial cells, and also participates in IP3-dependent regulation of cytoplasmic Ca2+, the key intermediate of cardiomyocyte functions. Consequently, impairment of Ca2+/CaSR signaling may contribute to inadequate bone formation, tumor progression, hypertension, vascular calcification and, probably, cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: Calcium intake; calcium-sensing receptor; Wnt signaling; vitamin D; bone formation; colorectal cancer; breast cancer; hypertension; vasculature; cardiac functions

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MDPI and ACS Style

Peterlik, M.; Kállay, E.; Cross, H.S. Calcium Nutrition and Extracellular Calcium Sensing: Relevance for the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis, Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases. Nutrients 2013, 5, 302-327.

AMA Style

Peterlik M, Kállay E, Cross HS. Calcium Nutrition and Extracellular Calcium Sensing: Relevance for the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis, Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases. Nutrients. 2013; 5(1):302-327.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peterlik, Meinrad; Kállay, Enikoe; Cross, Heide S. 2013. "Calcium Nutrition and Extracellular Calcium Sensing: Relevance for the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis, Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases." Nutrients 5, no. 1: 302-327.

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